osmotic shock


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osmotic shock

[äz′mäd·ik ′shäk]
(physiology)
The bursting of cells suspended in a dilute salt solution.
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When exposed to osmotic shock, aquatic organisms tend to maintain constant cell volume through the degradation or production of osmolytes, such as intracellular free amino acids (FAAs), sugars (trehalose), and other small organic molecules of polyols or methylamines (Lang et al., 1998; Wehner et al., 2003; Friedrich et al., 2006; Pasantes-Morales et al., 2006; Willmer, 2006).
To avoid osmotic shock, salt (NaCl) was applied in nutrient medium incrementally in phases of 100 mM NaCl per day.
These bacteria would then have been weakened during the electrospraying process itself, by the combined effect of the osmotic shock caused by the rapid drying (which also occurs during uniaxial electrospraying) together with the presence of acetic acid.
These procedures include mechanical methods (ultrasound), physical methods (osmotic shock, freezing and thawing), chemicals (addition of magnesium, calcium, EDTA, glycine, and Triton X-100), and enzymatic (lysozyme) treatments (11,39-41).
The Hypertonic saline solution lyses the cells within the tissues by the mechanism of osmotic shock and dissociation of DNA from proteins [18].
In a previous study, hemolysis generated by the osmotic shock method led to elevated measured plasma ammonia concentration, whereas hemolysis generated by the shearing method had little to no effect on plasma ammonia measurement.
To test whether the insertion of HMC-C causes pore formation and osmotic shock in erythrocyte cells, an osmotic protection assay was performed with chicken erythrocytes and HMC-C in the presence of several osmoprotectants.
They open early in response to osmotic shock so that the channel of large conductance, through which molecules the cell needs can escape, doesn't open unless it is absolutely necessary.
This class includes solutions of glucose, glycerin, and zinc sulfate that act by provoking cellular osmotic shock, which causes the release of proinflammatory cytokines.
In order to avoid osmotic shock, the change of the water salinity was 6 [per thousand] per day until the factorial experiment of six salinities (10, 16, 22, 28, 34 and 40 [per thousand]) and four temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32[degrees]C) was completed.
To avoid osmotic shock, saline treatment was imposed incrementally, increasing the concentration by 50 mM every second day until the final concentration was reached.
Another change, which is readily observable in the treated animal, is greater tolerance of the red blood cells to osmotic shock. Again, this change is seen most strongly in the older animals, with the cells from the treated individual showing an osmotic fragility which is characteristic of the animal at a younger age.