Osteology

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osteology

[‚äs·tē′äl·ə·jē]
(anatomy)
The study of anatomy and structure of bone.

Osteology

 

the branch of anatomy that studies the skeleton.

Many bones were first described by Hippocrates, but osteology did not develop until the introduction of cadaver dissection, histological techniques, microscopy of bones, and roentgenography. The science is divided into general osteology, comparative osteology, developmental osteology, and special osteology; the last studies the development and structure of individual bones. Osteology achieved particular importance owing to improved surgical treatment of bone and joint diseases and injuries.

Many bone diseases are cured by orthopedic methods. The following classification of bone diseases has been adopted in the Soviet Union: traumatic, comprising fractures, traumatic arthroses, and deforming spondylosis; inflammatory, which can be specific (tuberculous and syphilitic bone diseases) or nonspecific (osteomyelitis, osteitis); degenerative, including toxic, alimentary, and endocrine bone diseases and bone diseases associated with diseases of the internal organs; and dysplastic, characterized by developmental anomalies of cartilage, osteosclerosis, or inadequate or excessive development of bones (for example, gigantism). Dysplastic bone diseases also include bone tumors, which can be benign (osteoma, chondroma) or malignant; in the latter case, the tumor is primary (osteogenic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing’s tumor) or secondary (metastatic tumors).

Osteology is used in anthropology to determine the racial, sexual, or developmental patterns of variations in size and shape of the skeleton of modern man. The morphogenesis of the human skeleton is studied by examining the morphology of fossil man and tracing the intrauterine development of the skeleton.

Using both anthropometric and descriptive methods, osteology relies heavily on postmortem study of the skeleton. The data are analyzed statistically and graphically. One concern of osteology is to derive absolute numerical expressions for the sizes and ratios of sizes of bones. For example, the ratio of the transverse diameters of a long bone to the length is a useful expression of the massiveness of the bone. The angle of inclination of individual sections of bone, for instance, the longitudinal axis of a diaphysis or the neck of the femur, can be measured with appropriate instruments. Osteological and craniological data continue to be almost the only resources available for the study of the morphology of fossil man.

References in periodicals archive ?
Mas, em Osteologia, poderemos apresentar os seguintes nomes anatomicos para analise morfologica:
Para se obter estas informacoes, em casos criminais, torna-se necessario que esqueletos sejam escavados por especialistas forenses treinados em osteologia humana e que seja realizada uma investigacao sistematica dos processos tafonomicos que afetam a disposicao dos vestigios: "(.
Yo sabia algo de antropologia fisica y osteologia de animales, asi que me uni al grupo como su experto en "huesos".
La clase medica reivindica que la antropologia fisica esta dentro de su jurisdiccion, debiendo ser entendida como una prolongacion natural de la anatomia descriptiva y de la osteologia.
Incluso nosotros, si queremos conseguir resultados positivos en la representacion del cuerpo humano, debemos ampliar nuestros conocimientos anatomicos, siguiendo la leccion de los antiguos, y no debemos olvidar que el estudio de la Osteologia (Ciencia de los huesos) y de la Miologia (Ciencia de los musculos), nos permite plasmar los volumenes sin incertezas porque ofrecen la posibilidad de captar los detalles del modelado, que tal vez escapen incluso a la mas atenta observacion del natural.
Elementos anatomicos de osteologia y miologia para el uso de pintores y escultores.
La miologia y osteologia postcraneal de los mustelidos de America del Sur permanecen practicamente inexploradas, en especial en lo que respecta a cuestiones morfofuncionales y como fuente potencial de caracteres filogeneticos.
Osteologia de Astyanax aurocaudatus Eigenmann, 1913 (Pisces: Characidae), con notas sobre la validez de Carlastyanax Gery, 1972.