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The study of anatomy and structure of bone.



the branch of anatomy that studies the skeleton.

Many bones were first described by Hippocrates, but osteology did not develop until the introduction of cadaver dissection, histological techniques, microscopy of bones, and roentgenography. The science is divided into general osteology, comparative osteology, developmental osteology, and special osteology; the last studies the development and structure of individual bones. Osteology achieved particular importance owing to improved surgical treatment of bone and joint diseases and injuries.

Many bone diseases are cured by orthopedic methods. The following classification of bone diseases has been adopted in the Soviet Union: traumatic, comprising fractures, traumatic arthroses, and deforming spondylosis; inflammatory, which can be specific (tuberculous and syphilitic bone diseases) or nonspecific (osteomyelitis, osteitis); degenerative, including toxic, alimentary, and endocrine bone diseases and bone diseases associated with diseases of the internal organs; and dysplastic, characterized by developmental anomalies of cartilage, osteosclerosis, or inadequate or excessive development of bones (for example, gigantism). Dysplastic bone diseases also include bone tumors, which can be benign (osteoma, chondroma) or malignant; in the latter case, the tumor is primary (osteogenic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing’s tumor) or secondary (metastatic tumors).

Osteology is used in anthropology to determine the racial, sexual, or developmental patterns of variations in size and shape of the skeleton of modern man. The morphogenesis of the human skeleton is studied by examining the morphology of fossil man and tracing the intrauterine development of the skeleton.

Using both anthropometric and descriptive methods, osteology relies heavily on postmortem study of the skeleton. The data are analyzed statistically and graphically. One concern of osteology is to derive absolute numerical expressions for the sizes and ratios of sizes of bones. For example, the ratio of the transverse diameters of a long bone to the length is a useful expression of the massiveness of the bone. The angle of inclination of individual sections of bone, for instance, the longitudinal axis of a diaphysis or the neck of the femur, can be measured with appropriate instruments. Osteological and craniological data continue to be almost the only resources available for the study of the morphology of fossil man.

References in periodicals archive ?
Based on these observations and the differences in the osteological and soft-bodied anatomy, we consider the placement of C.
Osteological analysis and accompanying historical and archaeological research (Long 2015) reveal life history information that can be compared with the excavators' original interpretations.
In this work I will describe the myological and osteological structures of both the cephalic region and the pectoral girdle of the heptapterin Heptapterus mustelinus (Valenciennes, 1836) ('Nemuroglanis clade'), and compare these structures with those of two representatives of the other main, more plesiomorphic, heptapterin group, namely Goeldiella eques (Muller & Troschel, 1948) and Rhamdia guatemalensis (Gunther, 1864) ('basal clade') (see Lundberg et al.
7 mm BL were cleared and stained following the methods of Potthoff (1984) and Taylor and Van Dyke (1985), and then examined for meristics and osteological features.
Although researchers have slowly addressed the complex issues raised by the osteological paradox, its use as a worthy research endeavor in itself has emerged only recently (DeWitte and Stojanowski 2015).
Long bones and skulls from cist I have been examined by Adolf Friedenthal (1932), the rest of the osteological assemblage by Jonathan Kalman (1998).
The aim of this work is to describe the osteological and myological structures of the cephalic region (branchial apparatus excluded) and pectoral girdle of a species belonging to the type genus of the Pangasiidae, Pangasius macronema and to compare these structures with those of another representative of that genus, Pangasius larnaudii and of representatives of the other pangasiid genus, Helicophagus leptorhynchus and Helicophagus typus, as well as of several other catfishes, as the foundation for a discussion on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pangasiidae.
They did not provide osteological evidence for their allocation of the fossils to A.
The reasons for resurrecting Leptomicrurus are those of Schmidt coupled with certain hemipenial and osteological characters (Roze and Bernal-Carlo 1988).
Eggs, larvae and osteological development of the northern searobin, Prionotus carolinus (Pisces, Triglidae).
Based on five cleared-and-stained specimens of both species, a preliminary osteological study revealed some interesting facts: whereas the total vertebrae number are almost the same in L.