This result can be due to other parameters added to JSW, which are osteophyte
formation, subchondral sclerosis and cysts.
Surgical treatment includes the resection of symptomatic osteophytes
of variable size extending up to the midpoint of the ventral aspect of vertebral body are common in dogs, because of appearance of separate centers of ossification in the ventral portion of the annulus.
Radiographs of the hamulus and pterygomaxillary region should be obtained to determine whether the hamulus is fractured, whether an osteophyte
is present on the hamular process producing inflammation of the bursa, or for any other abnormal findings.
Posttraumatic anterior cervical osteophyte
and dysphagia: Surgical report and literature review.
Intrinsic factors include disruption of the normal articular surface, osteophytes
, intra-articular loose bodies and secondary osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is reportedly the most common form of arthritis and is caused by inflammation of the soft tissue and bony structures of the joints, which worsens over time and leads to progressive thinning of articular cartilage, narrowing of the joint space, synovial membrane thickening, osteophyte
formation and increased density of subchondral bone.
Pathophysiological factors in CSM Mechanical Static Congenital canal stenosis Cervical disc prolapse Vertebral osteophyte
formation Hypertrophic ossification of PLL Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy Facet/unconvertable hypertrophy Dynamic Repetitive movements Primarily in sagittal plane Poor cord elasticity Ischaemic Compression of larger arteries Decreased pia/medullary flow Venous congestion PLL - posterior longitudinal ligament.
These are paravertebral ossifications that resemble an osteophyte
, but run in the vertical rather than the horizontal plane (Fig.
Radiography of the carpal joint revealed that there was narrowing of the joint space, sclerosis of the subchondral bone, marginal osteophyte
formation, periosteal bone proliferation and old articular fracture of metacarpal bone (Fig.
2,3) When a large osteophyte
arises from the upper cervical vertebrae, as in our case, where it occurred at the C1 to C2 articular margins, it presents as a large oropharyngeal mass.
Disc degeneration with osteophyte
(bone spur) formation