9) Ives paints a hazy aural picture of solitude, loneliness and quietude by writing soft ostinatos
in all the parts while the horn (and later a solo cello) plays a contemplative, wistful melody.
The application of motor "mechanical" rhythm, as well as "mechanically" progressing ostinato
figures, then serves to enhance this effect.
From in-depth analysis of pertinent examples, recurring stylistic traits emerge, such as semitonal relations, third- and seventh-degree inflection, octatonic activity, tritonal polarity, sequentially treated second-inversion chords, altered Mixolydian mode (with flattened sixth) in addition to traditional modes, and multiple ostinatos
, which cut across any particular phase.
No amount of rhythmic irregularity and energetic ostinato
, however, can compensate for inconsistency of melodic invention.
connect smoothly between sections through the reinterpretation of a single pitch--E-flat across the gate, now interpreted as D-sharp--a technique not entirely foreign to classical composers, referred to as common-tone modulation in tonal contexts.
He identifies and provides examples from her music of several of her approaches: ostinato
, retrograde, rotation, and unique arrangements
Some common elements in all the performances were multiple percussionists (this being Africa, after all), and an aural fabric of ostinatos
, usually played by one or more electric guitars.
Usually a drummer plays these rhythmic ostinatos
throughout a section or a whole piece, and then repeats them using improvisatory variations.
Similarly, a wide variety of musical devices are described as deriving from Moravian folk music, including "frequent ostinatos
and rhythmic irregularities, such as asymmetrical phrase lengths" (p.
Its three highly creative pieces use alternating meters, compelling ostinatos
, modal harmonies and, above all, unexpected twists and turns as the "plot" of each piece unfolds.
Despite the differentiation of character between the two parts, the cello assumes the dominant role, being assigned the primary thematic ideas, while the piano material is usually limited to the aforementioned ostinatos
The whole movement is built around pedal notes and ostinatos
consisting of open fifths or tritones that accompany short legato melodies.