other-directedness

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other-directedness

an attitudinal orientation or personality type in which a person's sense of social identity is dependent upon the approval of others. In the two-fold schema proposed by RIESMAN (1950), other-directedness is contrasted with inner-directedness, in which a person's behaviour and sense of social identity is mainly governed by internalized standards and conscience. Riesman's suggestion was that modern societies like the US, dominated by mass consumption, were increasingly moving towards other-direction and an anxiety-riven conformity; a fear of not fitting in (other-direction), rather than a deeper sense of‘guilt‘ or 'shame’ (inner-direction).
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
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The other-directed type, they argued, approached political life with the attitude of a consumer rather than a producer, which meant that he tended to be passive, disengaged, or indifferent.
Correlation analysis results (see Table 5) showed that the three self-directed coping strategies were significantly positively correlated with self-esteem, that those three relinquished-control coping strategies were significantly negatively correlated with self-esteem, and the four other-directed coping strategies were not statistically significantly correlated with self-esteem.
The final, other-directed strand of Arab culture is arguably the most dominant: those whom Riesman would have called the "lonely Arab crowd." Free of roots or tradition, they take refuge in superficiality, seeking fulfillment in consumerism, careers and lifestyles.
The other-directed theory derived from David Reisman, Reuel Denney, and Nathan Glazer relates to Rockwell's work by exploiting the fact that this was an era where other-directed people looked to media for education and guidance.
On the other hand, in terms of self-presentation, the coexistence and interchangeability of self-directed and other-directed identity claims (Gosling et al., 2002) were found in the focus group results.
Shyam Sundar, distinguished Professor of Communications and co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory, Penn State said that people who live in collectivist cultures are often more other-directed, who, want to know how others might look at them and also look to others as a way of influencing their own behaviors.
In particular, he fails to appreciate Aquinas's understanding of the ecstatic (or "other-directed") nature of being and goodness.
Love is always other-directed. It is never selfish.
To understand what's changed, Bowman goes back to sociologist David Riesman's 1950 classic The Lonely Crowd, in which the Harvard professor famously described an affluent, industrialized America whose populace was in transition from being "inner-directed" to "other-directed." In the old world of fixed values and social roles, people were generally guided by an internal "gyroscope" set in their youth.
Ironically, infantile narcissism is innately other-directed. The purpose of the infant's primal scream is survival--to have its needs met.
I'm sure that those approaches are effective, and I know that the movement has found inspiration in poetry and music, but I imagined a way that would emulate my father's other-directed, gentle masculinity.