Sinn Féin

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Sinn Féin

(shĭn fān) [Irish,=we, ourselves], Irish nationalist movement. It had its roots in the Irish cultural revival at the end of the 19th cent. and the growing nationalist disenchantment with the constitutional Home RuleHome Rule,
in Irish and English history, political slogan adopted by Irish nationalists in the 19th cent. to describe their objective of self-government for Ireland. Origins of the Home Rule Movement
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 movement. The founder (1900) was Arthur GriffithGriffith, Arthur,
1872–1922, Irish statesman, founder of Sinn Féin. He joined the nationalist movement as a young man. In 1899 he founded the United Irishman,
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, who in 1899 established the first of the patriotic journals, The United Irishman, in which he advocated complete national self-reliance. The movement was not, at first, an overtly political one, nor did it advocate violence. Its method was, rather, one of passive resistance to all things English and included an attempted revival of Irish Gaelic.

In 1905, Sinn Féin was organized politically, but until the outbreak of World War I it gained little strength. The British suppression of the Easter Rebellion of 1916 greatly stimulated its growth. In 1917 many of its leaders, released from internment, met to reorganize under the leadership of Eamon De ValeraDe Valera, Eamon
, 1882–1975, Irish statesman, b. New York City. He was taken as a child to Ireland. As a young man he joined the movement advocating physical force to achieve Irish independence and took part in the Easter Rebellion of 1916.
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. In the election of 1918, Sinn Féin put up a candidate for every Irish seat in the British Parliament and won 73 seats. To protest British rule over Ireland, the elected members declined to go to Westminster. Instead, they set up an Irish assembly in Dublin, called the Dáil ÉireannDáil Éireann
[Irish,=diet of Ireland], the popular representative body of the Oireachtas, or National Parliament, of the Republic of Ireland. The second, smaller chamber, the Saenad Éireann, or Senate, has very limited powers, and the executive, as
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, which declared Irish independence. The British attempted to suppress terrorists, led by Michael CollinsCollins, Michael,
1890–1922, Irish revolutionary leader. He spent the years from 1907 to 1916 in England, during which period he joined the Fenian movement. He took part in the Easter Rebellion in Dublin in 1916 and was imprisoned for the rest of the year.
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, by a policy of counterterror and sent (1920) a body of military irregulars, popularly known as the Black and Tans, to reestablish order. The populace rallied to Sinn Féin.

In 1921 the British government yielded and began negotiations to establish the Irish Free State. The partition provisions of the resulting treaty did not, however, satisfy the militant wing of Sinn Féin, represented by De Valera, and civil war ensued. Gradually most of the country became reconciled to the new government, and Sinn Féin virtually came to an end when De Valera withdrew from it in 1927 and entered the Dáil.

In 1938 the few remaining intransigents merged with the Irish Republican ArmyIrish Republican Army
(IRA), nationalist organization devoted to the integration of Ireland as a complete and independent unit. Organized by Michael Collins from remnants of rebel units dispersed after the Easter Rebellion in 1916 (see Ireland), it was composed of the more
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 (IRA), becoming the terrorist organization's political arm in advocating unification of Ireland by force. In 1969, along with the IRA, it split into official and provisional wings. The Marxist-oriented official Sinn Féin eventually became the Workers' Party, while the provisional wing continued to support the provisional IRA's use of terrorist activities to achieve unification. Gerry AdamsAdams, Gerry
(Gerard Adams), 1948–, Northern Irish political leader. Born into an Irish nationalist family, Adams became politically active during the Catholic civil rights demonstrations of the 1960s, joining Sinn Féin and most probably (despite Adams's denials)
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 headed the latter party from 1983. In 1986, Sinn Féin ended its boycott of Republic of Ireland's parliament, permitting its members to sit for the first time since the parliament was established in 1922, but it did not win any seats until 1997. Party members elected to the British parliament, however, boycott the body. Since 1997 the party has won at least two seats to that body; more often at least four.

In late 1994, after the IRA and Protestant militias agreed to a cease-fire, efforts were begun to negotiate a settlement of the Northern Ireland issue. However, the peace process was put in jeopardy by renewed violence on the part of the IRA in 1996. Because of this, negotiations begun in June, 1996, did not include Sinn Féin. Following a renewed cease-fire in July, 1997, the group participated in peace talks begun in September of that year.

In 1998, agreement was reached concerning political restructuring in the province that would allow Protestants and Catholics to govern jointly in a democratically elected assembly. Members of Sinn Féin were elected to the assembly and participated in the province's government, but moderate Protestant leaders insisted on IRA disarmament (finally begun in Oct., 2001) as a condition for Sinn Féin's long-term participation in a broad-based government.

In 2002 the arrest of party members on charges of spying for the IRA led Protestants to call for Sinn Féin's ouster from the government, and home rule was suspended. Elections in Nov., 2003, which made Sinn Féin the largest Irish nationalist party in the assembly, did not lead to the reestablishment of home rule. In 2005 senior party members were accused of sanctioning alleged IRA robberies. Later in 2005, charges stemming from the 2002 case were dropped, and one of the accused spies admitted to being a long-time government informant, prompting charges that the spying case was a politically motivated attempt to aid moderate Protestant Unionists. Sinn Féin remained the largest Catholic party after the Mar., 2007, elections, and later that month the Democratic Unionists, the more militant Protestant party, agreed to enter into a power-sharing government with Sinn Féin. Sinn Féin has continued to be the largest Northern Irish Catholic party in subsequent elections.

Sinn Féin's showing in parliamentary elections in the Irish Republic was not significant from 1986 (when it decided to end its boycott) until 2011, when the party won 14 seats and became the fourth largest party in the lower house. In 2016 the party further increased the number of seats it won, and became the third largest party. Adams was succeeded as party president by Mary Lou McDonald in 2018. In 2020 Sinn Féin, in a significant victory, won a vote plurality but ended in second place in terms of seats.

Bibliography

See R. Davis, Arthur Griffith and Non-violent Sinn (1974); M. Dillon, The Dirty War (1990); P. Taylor, Behind the Mask (1998).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sinn Fein

 

an Irish political party founded in 1905 that united nationalists from the petite and middle bourgeoisie and the radical intelligentsia. The party advocated the emancipation of Ireland from English colonial supremacy.

In 1919, after the party won 73 of the 105 Irish seats in the British Parliament, the Sinn Feiners met in Dublin and formed an Irish parliament (Dáil), which proceeded to proclaim Ireland’s independence. Subsequently independence was achieved through the compromise Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. The right-wing leaders of the Sinn Fein concluded the treaty, which led to a split in the Irish national liberation movement and to the civil war of 1922–23. After being defeated in the war, many of the Sinn Feiners, refusing to acknowledge the treaty, went underground.

It was not until the 1950’s that the Sinn Feiners reentered the political arena, reconstructing a party that promoted an anti-imperialistic program for the unification of Ireland. In the early 1970’s the party split into the official wing, which favors the reunification of Ireland by political means, and the provisional wing, which adheres to methods of armed terrorism. In January 1977 the official wing adopted the name Sinn Fein Workers’ Party.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Shocked beyond measure, we dragged ourselves from the corpse--how strange is that horror we mortals have of the companionship of a dead body--and left it sitting there, its arms clasped about its knees.
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Most of us like the idea that we could be desperately wicked if only we let ourselves go.
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Into that we ran, finding ourselves in a cavern about as large as an ordinary room in a house.
Nelson and I were hustled out of a saloon, and found ourselves in the very last rank of a disorderly parade.
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Summary: Ever so often, despite our new year resolutions and best intentions, we tend to busy ourselves with mundane tasks and inconsequential matter...
TO be the best, we push ourselves to the limits-working long hours, spending weekends in front of the computer and saying yes to side gigs even if it means sacrificing time spent with loved ones.
It is for this reason that we can exceed ourselves. We can always go much further than we sometimes imagine or dream ourselves to be capable of.