overburden

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overburden

Geology the sedimentary rock material that covers coal seams, mineral veins, etc.

overburden

[′ō·vər‚bərd·ən]
(geology)
Rock material overlying a mineral deposit or coal seam. Also known as baring; top.
Material of any nature, consolidated or unconsolidated, that overlies a deposit of useful materials, ores, or coal, especially those deposits that are mined from the surface by open cuts.
Loose soil, sand, or gravel that lies above the bedrock.
(mining engineering)
To charge in a furnace too much ore and flux in proportion to the amount of fuel.

overburden

1. The entire thickness of soil over rock or over a specific bearing stratum.
2. An undesirable top layer covering rock, gravel, or other useful material wanted for construction.