In contrast to the predecessor version, National Ready Mixed Concrete Association Engineering staff notes, ASTM C94-15 places the onus on the customer to communicate all requirements for concrete from a project specification; sets mix air content at levels for moderate and severe exposure; directs the purchaser, when ordering ready mixed, to either state the required air content or indicate finished concrete exposure type; requires purchaser to indicate density when ordering heavy weight mixes, and clarifies terms for ordering lightweight aggregate by stating equilibrium density; and, contains appendix revisions advising on strength overdesign
It is easier to overdesign
, then whittle down to meet code.
2] has the potential to reduce uncertainty and avoid unnecessary overdesign
of the pipelines.
X-pessimism leads to wasted debug effort and overdesign
These deviations usually cause an overdesign
of the building structures, which ACCIONA Infrastructure is striving to avoid.
However, the trade-off would be overdesign
, within an acceptable limit.
Common techniques for planning for requirements changes include overdesign
(as in the example above), delayed implementation and bread boarding high-risk systems.
This will result in over-estimation of the thermal conditions, which will lead to overdesign
of the thermal environments and the mechanical systems.
Among the strategies evaluated, the two that reduced embodied emissions--increased fly ash and reduced overdesign
due to better designs--were found to lower the CO2 emissions by approximately 10% and 17%, respectively, while also saving upfront costs.
unplanned and extensive fixed costs , and increased variable product costs due to overdesign
Three key factors: 1) overdesign
, 2) lack of technical expertise at the overseeing transit agency, and 3) external factors like political interference and rising material costs.
Diligent design: In the past, architects and design professionals often tended to overdesign
to provide a layer of protection in the case of system or material failure.