At baseline, vehicle controls for all 4 donors, when compared to median expression of overlapping genes
from the GTEx dataset of numerous human tissues (GTEx Consortium, 2015), clustered together with heart/ventricle tissue (Fig.
Convergent overlapping genes
, Divergent overlapping genes
, Embedded overlapping genes
We selected 6 genes from the 27 overlapping genes
(see Figure 3(a) and Table S3) identified in the current and previous microarray analyses and analyzed their expression using a real-time qPCR.
For the 31 overlapping genes
, no pathway was significantly associated with these genes.
Strikingly, 25 of the 26 overlapping genes
were down-regulated (94%), while only spicule matrix protein SM30 was induced by seawater acidification in multiple studies.
, there are 21 overlapping genes
, and the overlap rate is 21/55 (38%).
GO enrichment analysis by Bingo software  showed that these 12 overlapping genes
were involved in ribosomal structure/function, gene expression, translation, and negative regulation of RNA splicing (Table 2).
SAT1 was one of the 246 overlapping genes
found in blood samples obtained from nine men with bipolar disorder.
(a) Transcriptional Interference: in this mechanism, the regulation occurs not due to the existence of complementarities between the sense and antisense transcripts but because of the act of the concomitant transcription of overlapping genes
in opposite directions at the same locus.
New findings indicate that the role of genes and our understanding of inheritance are all the more complex, with RNA playing a greater role than expected, sections of DNA coding for more than one protein, overlapping genes
, single genes being located on multiple chromosomes, and epigenetic inheritance (Pearson, 2006; Pennisi, 2007; Flannery, 2010).
are emphasized as evidence of deliberate design, while the fact that these genes are a tiny minority of cases, often at the very ends of genes in genomes under extreme pressure, is downplayed.
There is evidence that there are overlapping genes
that run on opposite strands, encoding proteins of different functions.