In general, those methods are derivatives of the oversampling
techniques, like for example Delta-Sigma A/D conversion  with main difference that stochastic approach excludes feedback loop, which is inevitable in Delta-Sigma A/D conversion.
Frequency domain oversampling
 can extend the error tolerance; however the tolerance is less than 5 Hz.
Hosseinzadeh and Eftekharia  preprocessed the original data using the fuzzy cluster and synthetic oversampling
technique (SMOTE) to obtain the training set on which Rotation Forest is learned.
The representative scheme is randomly oversampling
the minority class and undersampling the majority class [17, 18] or a combination of both schemes.
But random undersampling can potentially rmove certain important samples, and random oversampling
can lead to overfitting.
Interchangeable digital load cells equipped with individual 18 bit 4 times oversampling
AD converters are said to improve the performance by a factor of 20.
So in general, some degree of oversampling
is considered, which introduces redundancy in the coefficients, in order to "smooth" the biorthonormal window [gamma](k), for the sake of numerical stability.
. An intuitive method for correcting for sample selection bias is the plain replication of each observation in the sample according to its IP weight (i.e., in a stratified random sample, one replicates an observation of stratum h by the factor [w.sub.h]).
On Monday, Trump said "WikiLeaks also shows how John Podesta rigged the polls by oversampling
Democrats, a voter suppression technique." A "pants-on-fire" lie, says PolitiFact.
Trump has made 55 "Pants on Fire" comments, including today's comment on how Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta (http://www.politifact.com/personalities/donald-trump/statements/byruling/pants-fire/) rigged polls by oversampling
Democrats as a voter suppression technique.
mechanism suitable percentages must be provided for creation of synthetic data points in each class, to render magnitude of each class closer to magnitude of two largest classes; C7 and C17 (i.e.