Comparative studies of ovicell anatomy and reproductive patterns in Cribrilina annulata and Celleporella hyalina (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida).
Lecithotrophic larvae are brooded within calcareous chambers called ovicells on the parent colony and released during the day (Lindquist and Hay, 1996).
Other studies have confirmed higher concentrations of bryostatins on larvae (~10 X), as well as in zooids with ovicells (~3 X) compared to zooids with no ovicells (Lopanik et al., 2004, 2006).
For some colonies, this process took under 1 h, whereas other colonies, especially those with larvae present within ovicells, required repeated applications of the solution.
ellerii, maternal ovicells are the main type of functional polymorph requiring the intracolonial transfer of resources, and assessing connection numbers in colonies with different numbers of ovicells could provide an intra-specific estimate of colonial integration.
To avoid contaminating parent-colony DNA with progeny DNA, only the portions of a colony lacking ovicells
, which contain larvae, were used.
The majority of gymnolaemate bryozoans brood their embryos at one of four external sites: (1) attached to the external body wall, (2) in the tentacle sheath or vestibule, (3) in embryo sacs, or (4) in ovicells
(Hyman, 1959; Strom, 1977; Reed, 1991).