The host gene expression changes due to the development of an embryo within the ovicell could potentially override gene expression differences influenced by the symbiont cells.
Comparative studies of ovicell anatomy and reproductive patterns in Cribrilina annulata and Celleporella hyalina (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida).
Other studies have confirmed higher concentrations of bryostatins on larvae (~10 X), as well as in zooids with ovicells (~3 X) compared to zooids with no ovicells (Lopanik et al.
For some colonies, this process took under 1 h, whereas other colonies, especially those with larvae present within ovicells, required repeated applications of the solution.
ellerii, maternal ovicells are the main type of functional polymorph requiring the intracolonial transfer of resources, and assessing connection numbers in colonies with different numbers of ovicells could provide an intra-specific estimate of colonial integration.
If necessary, ovicells
were removed with forceps before DNA was extracted.
The majority of gymnolaemate bryozoans brood their embryos at one of four external sites: (1) attached to the external body wall, (2) in the tentacle sheath or vestibule, (3) in embryo sacs, or (4) in ovicells
(Hyman, 1959; Strom, 1977; Reed, 1991).