The kidney stone analysis can be done by, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis by semi-quantitative titrimetric and calorimeter method, mass spectrometry and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, employed according to feasibility or resources.2,3 Recently, a study conducted in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia reported that the prevalence of calcium oxalate
stones was 74.2%, uric acid stones 12.8% and mixed calcium oxalate/phosphate/uric acid stones 10.4%.4 The present study was aimed to analyze the chemical composition of urinary calculi in the Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia and to propose recommendations for their prevention.
Isolation and identification of oxalate
oxidase producing bacteria
Also, because acidity favours the growth of wood rotting fungi, the precipitation of CaOx either can be seen to remove the oxalate
anion ([C.sub.2][O.sub.4.sup.2=]) as a source of base or to displace protons from oxalic acid ([H.sub.2][C.sub.2][O.sub.4]).
Dietary calcium helps limit your body's absorption of oxalate
, and low dietary calcium has been found to increase the risk of calcium oxalate
Ngolui, "Averrhoa carambola: a renewable source of oxalic acid for the facile and green synthesis of divalent metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu) oxalates
and oxide nanoparticles," Journal of Applied Chemistry, vol.
The doctor will also order tests to look for unusual levels of chemicals such as calcium, oxalate
, magnesium, and sodium in the blood and urine to help design a prevention strategy.
Lodi states that "every plant, green and otherwise (including spinach) has abundant magnesium and calcium and potassium." Unfortunately, none of the calcium in spinach or other high-oxalate plants is bioavailable, since it is strongly bound to oxalates
. Furthermore, the average oxalate
value of spinach is 7.5 times its calcium content, making spinach a very poor choice for someone to maintain adequate calcium stores.
We contacted Michael Liebman, PhD, a professor at the University of Wyoming, who has done research on the oxalate
content of foods.
*Increased risk is seen when there is low urine volume, consumption of foods rich in oxalate
and or uric acid, excessive consumption of animal protein and sodium and high acidic pH of foods.
are major antinutritional factors present in taro .
Iced tea contains high concentrations of oxalate
, one of the key chemicals that lead to the formation of kidney stones, a common disorder of the urinary tract.
are found in excess in tea and coffee, spinach, tomato, mango and strawberries.