Different forms of polyaniline it its different oxidation states
. [Color figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
In mineralogy, the colors in gemstones can be explained by their material makeup and the identity of the transition metal impurity in them." The various colors in cuprite and malachite are explained by differences in oxidation states
of copper ions in their crystal structures.
The XPS indicated that the oxidation state
of Ti and Nb in the photocatalytic powders is 4+.
The chemical oxidation states
of Ru and Zn in the Ru-doped ZnO samples were analyzed by the XPS technique.
However, strong evidence of the oxidation states
of Au for achieving high activity is one of the major issues that has not yet been resolved.
For determining the Fe oxidation state
by scanning the incident energy, the measured Fe K-fluorescence line was first normalised against incident intensity ([I.sub.0]) and then normalised to a postedge value of 1.
The first is Rh coated on the ceria/zirconia/alumina (12g Rh/[ft.sup.3]) and the second catalyst is the Pt coated on alumina (48g Pt/[ft.sup.3]) to specifically decouple the effect of oxidation state
of Rh and Pt on the NO reduction function over the commercial LNT catalyst.
The tetrathionate ion has a formal oxidation state
of +2.5 while the oxidation state
of sulphur in dithionite is +3.
Uranium can exist in several oxidation states
[e.g.U(0), U(III), U(IV), and U(VI)], but under aerobic conditions, the predominant oxidation state
for uranium is U(VI).
Yeast metabolic activity leads to a more reduced juice environment and can alter the oxidation state
of molecules in the juice.
And in actual fact, the difference between Northparkes and Mount Adrah is the oxidation state
of the magma responsible for the generation of the hydrothermal system.