Represents input of material (crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates
or finished products) to processing units at a refinery that is being processed (input) into a particular unit for the first time.
"In California, ethanol is being blended into gasoline in areas that do not fall under the Clean Air Act oxygenate
tert-butyl alcohol occurred at 61 percent of the sites, and the other three oxygenates--all ethers similar in structure to MTBE--turned up 9 percent to 24 percent of the time.
US GASOLINE & OTHER FUEL ADDITIVES DEMAND (million dollars) % Annual Growth Item 1992 2001 2006 01/92 06/01 Fuel Additives 3744 9935 12570 11.5 4.8 Oxygenates
3168 8735 10990 11.9 4.7 MTBE 1958 5290 2530 11.7 -13.7 Ethanol 1210 3150 8080 11.2 20.7 Biodiesel neg 35 130 -- 30.0 Other Oxygenates
neg 260 250 -- -0.8 Specialty Additives 576 1200 1580 8.5 5.7 [c] 2002 by The Freedonia Group, Inc.
MTBE will be phased-out in California by December 31, 2002, but California's request to the EPA to opt out of the Clean Air Act's oxygenate
program has set off nationwide concern over weaking the Clean Air Act.
The groups also urged Congress to allow states to regulate MTBE and other oxygenates
. Specifically, they want EPA to grant California s request to set oxygenate
limits for its gasoline.
Other compounds used as oxygenates
are ethanol, tertiary-butyl alcohol, ethyl-tertiary-butyl ether, and tertiary-amyl-methyl ether.
It is predicted that the supply of oxygenates
will be insufficient to meet demand and less reformulated gasoline will be used than the regulators desire (ref.
According to Mike Lidgard, with EPA's regional air programs branch in Seattle, prices in different regions will fluctuate depending upon the type and availability of oxygenates
, cost differences between suppliers and other variables.
[ClickPress, Fri May 03 2019] Apart from transportation, fuel oxygenates
also find their application industrial level as fuel.
Unfortunately, scientific reports on the widely disclosed environmental dangers of using MTBE in gasoline still routinely repeat the state and federal EPA propaganda that MTBE and other oxygenates
such as ethanol are beneficial to cleaning the air ("Gasoline additive's going, but far from gone," SN: 4/8/00, p.
Other states are expected to follow California's lead and the US Congress is considering legislation to phase out use of this oxygenate
. Other oxygenates
, such as tertiary amyl methyl ether and ethyl tertiary butyl ether, will likely suffer from the same concerns as MTBE, especially those which are petroleum-derived.