Inorganic p-type semiconductor
copper iodide (CuI) becomes one of the promising HTLs for PSCs, due to its admirable properties such as wide band gap, high conductivity, low cost, and solution processable.
Caption: FIGURE 9: Mechanisms of photoactivated C[O.sub.2] reduction on a p-type semiconductor
electrode: (a) heterogeneous photoelectrocatalysis occurring directly at the semiconductor electrode; (b) homogeneous catalysis mediated by a molecular catalyst in the electrolyte; (c) heterogeneous photoelectrocatalysis directly on a metal-decorated semiconductor electrode; (d) heterogeneous catalysis mediated by a molecular catalyst anchored on the semiconductor electrode.
As for the N adatom, the Fermi level decreases due to the remarkable peak on the valence band maximum (VBM) , which makes the phosphorene sheet a p-type semiconductor
. Finally, we focus on the O adatom adsorption at the T site of phosphorene, which is discussed above .
The electrical resistance decreased upon NO gas exposure for all the samples in accordance with the typical characteristics of a p-type semiconductor
. The decrease in the electrical resistance is attributed to the electron charge transfer between NO gas and the surface of PANi/MWCNT p-type semiconductors
Murase et al., "Structural and electrical characterizations of electrodeposited p-type semiconductor
[Cu.sub.2] O films," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol.
where the negative sign is for p-type and positive sign for n-type conductivity, N is the charge carrier density, donor density ([N.sub.D]) for n-type or acceptor density ([N.sub.A]) for p-type semiconductors
, [C.sub.SC] represents the capacitance of the space charge region, [epsilon] is the relative dielectric constant of [Cu.sub.2]O which equals to 6.3 , and V is the applied electrode potential (volts).
Magnetoplasma wave propagation in the two-carrier system provided by p-type semiconductors
: a study of the transport properties of p-type germanium using magnetoplasma waves, J.
With this technology, micron-scale (micro-m: one millionth of a meter) trenches are etched on the surface of a silicon substrate, then using epitaxial growth(3), a thin-stripe structure of N- and P-type semiconductors
Copper oxides, including CuO and [Cu.sub.2]O, are p-type semiconductors
because of presence of acceptors levels attributed to copper vacancies.
Recent research has focused on the use of p-type semiconductors
and organic hole-transport materials [6-9] that have better mechanical properties and simple fabrication processes.
The difficulty in doping ZnO to p-type polarity has led the researchers to seek to create heterojunctions with other p-type semiconductors
to enable the use of ZnO in all kinds of electronic devices.