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F) Brain of neonate 3: pachygyria and severe vascular congestion.
In the developmental malformations--cortical dysplasia, pachygyria, heterotopias, schizencephaly were identified as some of the causes for epilepsy.
14) In this case, the cortical changes depicted by MRI were interpreted as lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, and pachygyria.
Agyria-Pachygyria and Pachygyria in children: Contribution of imaging.
Neuronal migrational defects include lissencephaly, pachygyria, heterotopia, focal cortical dysplasia, and polymicrogyria.
Agyria (complete lissencephaly) or pachygyria (incomplete lissencephaly) as well as a thickened cerebral cortex are seen on imaging studies, differentiating lissencephaly from malformations of neuronal proliferation (Figure 23).
Based on maternal reports, 7 were diagnosed with Down syndrome, 4 with autism, 3 with mental retardation (unspecified), 1 with pachygyria (a genetic disorder), and one with microcephaly.
Sixty-nine percent showed evidence of malformations of cortical development, including lissencephaly (relative smoothness of the brain surface) associated with pachygyria (poorly formed, broad cortical folds), agyria (no cortical folds), or both (Figure 2, panel B).
Rajadhyaksha and Meher Ursikar studied 76 children with seizures and CNS malformations based on MRI neuroimaging and concluded that 19 cases revealed corpus callosal dysgenesis, 9 patients lissencephaly and 9 focal cortical dysplasia, 6 pachygyria, 3 polymicrogyria, 15 tuberous scleroses and 3 Sturge-Weber syndrome.
Pachygyria and corpus callosum agenesis were the most common anomalies seen in four children each.
Two-year-old Kohen Mallon has pachygyria - a condition resulting from abnormal brain and nervous system development.
Categories of Malformations Associated With Congenital Zika Syndrome Category Examples Neurologic * Microcephaly * Hydrocephalus * Micrencephaly * Lissencephaly * Polymicrogyria * Pachygyria * Agyria * Holoprosencephaly * Ventriculomegaly * Corpus callosum abnormalities * Intracerebral calcifications * Destructive brain lesions Ocular * Chorioretinal atrophy * Optic nerve abnormalities * Maculopathies * Vascular abnormalities Musculoskeletal * Arthrogryposis * Craniofacial abnormalities (craniosynostosis) * Clubfoot * Acetabular dysplasia Genitourinary * Cryptorchidism * Hypospadias Other * Intrauterine growth restriction * Anasarca * Pulmonary hypoplasia * Single umbilical artery
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