How to improve the packet transmission
efficiency of WSN, reduce the packet loss rate of WSN, and maximize the lifetime is still a main challenge.
Usually, increase in node speed during packet transmission
would lead to packet loss due to the possibility of having bottleneck nodes in the network or link breakage.
Then, the BER value is used as the threshold value in packet transmission
. The BER is calculated for all sent and overheard packets:
The process of EDA mechanism between these nodes supports to control the rate of packet transmission
and will minimize the PL in case congest network.
DCF defines two access mechanisms for packet transmission
: (1) the basic one called the two way handshaking technique where the sender transmits data and the receiver responds with an ACK; and (2) the optional one called RTS/CTS technique or the four handshaking technique where the sender first transmits a short Request to send frame (RTS) and waits for a Clear-To-Send frame (CTS) from the destination before transmitting data and receiving ACK.
The CTS packets are used for the schedule for DATA packet transmission
. Finally, after successfully receiving DATA packet, the sink node will schedule ACK to finish the handshaking process.
During the trial, DOCOMO achieved an over-the-air latency of less than one millisecond together with a packet transmission
success rate of more than 99.999%, which are required for URLLC as defined by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) and ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication Sector).
The packet transmission
and reception count is measure of successful transmission of data between two successive nodes and the successful reception of data between two successive nodes.
Using WebSockets is one approach that attempts to create a persistent state of transmission (essentially a tunnel) as a way to eliminate the buildup of TCP packet transmission
errors inherent to very short TCP windowing times.
Interestingly, the AMCCR offers excellent performance and better throughput improvement due to optimal relay node selection from the lesser congested area with minimal overhead, providing the highest data rate for packet transmission
and influencing the network throughput.
Laor and Gendel  found that packet reordering results in limited speed of packet transmission
as well as throughput degradation.
Let [E.sub.trans] (p) denote the average packet transmission
energy consumed during [t.sub.r] (p).