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The discharge of urine from the bladder. Also known as micturition.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also called micturition), the reflex act of excreting urine from the body.

Uropoiesis—the production of urine—is a constant process, but urination occurs only intermittently, as the urinary bladder fills. Humans urinate four to six times daily. Urine is prevented from escaping from the bladder by two ring-shaped layers of muscle fibers: an internal sphincter, which consists of smooth muscle fibers, and an external one, which consists of striated fibers. When the pressure within the bladder reaches 2–2.66 kN/m2 (kilonewtons per square meter), or 15–20 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury), stimulation of the mechanoreceptors (the nerve endings of sensory neurons) in the wall of the bladder elicits the urge to urinate. In man, this critical pressure is achieved when 300–350 ml of urine accumulate in the bladder. During urination, the external sphincter relaxes reflexively as the muscles of the bladder wall contract.

Urination is regulated by the nerve centers in the spinal cord and brain; these centers are controlled, in turn, by the cerebral cortex. The filling of the urinary bladder arouses the cerebral cortex to elicit the urge to urinate. Certain neurological diseases, as well as injuries to the muscles of the urinary bladder, impair urination.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about urination?

Urination in a dream has several interpretations that range from inhibited sexual desires to the outpouring of emotional feelings that have been repressed.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


Releasing bodily wastes in a dream suggests a need to release repressed emotions and/or anxiety. At times, urination may have sexual connotations. Many people dream about the need to urinate, which wakes them up, and then they realize that they need to use the bathroom. At times, the dream triggers the physical sensation and other times the physical sensation may become a part of the dream.
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Painful urination was observed to be significantly associated with HSV-2 infection (p<0.05).
Symptoms of sepsis These can include cough, sputum (mucus), fever, weakness from pneumonia, urinary frequency, dysuria (painful urination), or pain.
As the cancer progresses, the patient may experience painful urination, fatigue, weight loss, a dull backache, or swelling of the legs.
The common bacterial infection, often called the "clap," has until now been easily treatable with antibiotics but if left alone can cause infertility in women and painful urination and a pus-oozing infection in men.
A very common, annoying and inconvenient condition, cystitis causes frequent, painful urination as a result of inflammation of the bladder.
However, the side effects associated with conventional radiation like painful urination, frequent urination and erectile dysfunction persist with seed therapy.
coli bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract - one feels excessive pelvic pressure, lower abdominal discomfort, frequent painful urination in small amounts and light fever.
Chlamydial infection can cause a mucoid urethral discharge and painful urination among men or cervicitis among women but is most often asymptomatic.
A woman should also see a doctor if she has an unusual vaginal discharge, difficult or painful urination, pain during intercourse and pain in the pelvic area.
In men, gonorrhea usually causes a discharge from the penis and painful urination. However, men may be infected and have no symptoms.