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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a manual tool or device or a machine for cutting various materials. Shears were found during the excavation of artifacts from the La Tène culture, which indicates that they were in use as early as the third century B.C. These early shears consisted of two knives connected by an arch-shaped spring plate; similar shears are still used for shearing sheep. Shears of the modern type, consisting of two knives connected by a hinge, appeared in the Near East around the eighth century A.D. In Russia the oldest hinged shears, dating from the tenth century A.D., were found in the Gnezdovo burial mounds.

Manual shears are used to cut fabrics, paper, and similar materials. A distinction is made between such types as household shears, metal snips, roofing shears, tailor’s scissors, and surgical shears. Stationary and portable mechanical shears with disc or bar cutters (such as bench shears) are used, especially in repair shops, to cut various materials. More powerful machines are used to cut sheet materials and strips, pipes, rolled and formed metal shapes, and similar materials. These shears are classified, according to the design of the working parts, into such types as hewing shears, guillotine shears, lever (alligator) shears, and circular shears.

Such machines are capable of cutting sheet steel up to 60 mm thick and rolled steel up to 165 mm thick. In such cutting, the cutting force reaches as much as 25 meganewtons (2,500 tons). Shears for similar work that weigh less than 8 kg, have a power rating below 1 kilowatt, and are capable of cutting sheet steel up to 5 mm thick are classified as portable machine tools.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A cutting tool consisting of two pivoted blades with beveled edges facing each other.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
It just needs someone with a fork and a pair of shears for an hour."
She could also send a surplus spade, And a pair of shears that were in her shed.
Members of the monarchy do not usually get involved in clandestine activities, but armed with a pair of shears Camilla embraced the cause and harvested lavender flowers from a roundabout in the capital.
scars a with By then, my wife's words had settled in the ears of a young man with a smile as wide as a circus ring, whose admirable beef had been directed towards a pair of shears and an unyielding bush of brambles on the other side of the fence.
The grave covers, known as cross slabs, are decorated with swords, crosses and emblems including a pair of shears to signify a housewife, and are related to figures in the history of the village.
The grave covers known as cross slabs are decorated with swords, crosses and emblems including a pair of shears to signify a housewife, and are related to figures in the history of the village.
"It is not his job, we just don't want anyone going back into those bushes with a punter, so he goes up with a pair of shears and cuts it all back.
But, before hitting the high street, I spent a happy couple of hours going through my maternity gear with a pair of shears and a blowtorch.
On larger plants it is easier to do this with a pair of shears. Be careful not to cut into old wood.
With proper care, a decent pair of shears should last a lifetime.
4 Trim beech and privet hedges with a sharp pair of shears or properly adjusted hedge trimmers.
'You can replace a lawn mower or a pair of shears if they get stolen but some of these trees are priceless.