From each ganglion emerges the anterior pallial nerve (APN) toward the anterior region of the mantle, ramifying by all the edge of this and later joining with the posterior pallial nerve PPN (coming from the visceral ganglion) to form circumpallial nerves (CP).
Transverse section of the brain ganglia (CG) stained with Gallego's trichrome A) Low magnification shows the neural tissue surrounded by a connective capsule (arrowhead), the two ganglions joined by a fibrous commissure (CC) and the projection of the anterior pallial nerve (APN).
Ventral pallial nerves (VPN) (which have dorsal and ventral branches dorsal pallial nerves to the edge of the mantle), dorsal pallial nerves to the edge of the mantle (DPN), posterior renal nerves (RN) and posterior pedal nerves (PPN), also were observed in these ganglia.
Cerebral ganglia presented a thick bridge of neuropilus that connects them called the intercerebral commissure, in the anterior area of this pair of ganglia, the anterior pallial nerves emerge (Fig.
To identify other baits, the activity in the pallial nerve of whelks was determined during exposure of the osphradium to odorant solutions prepared from horseshoe crab eggs, horseshoe crab hemolymph, and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) tissue.
Activity in the pallial nerve was recorded while odorant solutions were applied directly to the osphradium.
Quantifying activity in the pallial nerve in response to odorant solutions required that the whelk be removed from its shell, the pallial nerves exposed, and the osphradium isolated.
Injections of ACh into the neuro pil of the PCL or more caudally into the base of the pallial nerve
did not elicit chromatophore activity.
A microscope with epifluorescence and a rhodamine filter (Nikon DM580) was used to map the progress of the orange Di-I fluorescence from the epistellar body, across the stellate ganglion, through axons and into the pallial nerve
over several days.
Autoradiographic experiments indicate that optic nerves from separate eyes join the circumpallial nerve, cross the mantle via one of several pallial nerves, and finally make synaptic contact with second-order interneurons on the cortical surface of one of the two lateral lobes of the PVG (Spagnolia and Wilkens, 1983).
4E) and was the only Goc protein that appeared to be expressed at high levels by the pallial nerves entering the lateral lobes (Fig.
First, we saw strong expression of [G[alpha].sub.q] in the pallial nerves entering the lateral lobes; [G.sub.[alpha]q] is also expressed in the cell bodies and axons of the photoreceptors of the proximal retina.