Palynology

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palynology

[‚pal·ə′näl·ə·jē]
(paleontology)
The study of spores, pollen, microorganisms, and microscopic fragments of megaorganisms that occur in sediments.

Palynology

 

the aggregate of branches of science (above all, botany) dealing with the study of pollen grains and spores. Many scientists define palynology as an independent science studying pollen and spores and their dissemination and uses. The term “palynology” was proposed in 1944 by the English paleobotanists H. Hyde and D. Williams.

The principal subdivision of palynology is palynomorphology, which studies the shape, structure, and development of spores and pollen grains (male gametophytes of seed plants). The ex-tines and, less frequently, the perinia have characteristic morphological features that are important in spore-pollen analysis. Comparative palynomorphological research is used in the taxonomy of plants (palynotaxonomy) and in the study of the dissemination and fossilization of pollen grains and spores.

Spore-pollen analysis, primarily of sedimentary rocks and peat, helps solve various paleobotanical, geomorphological, and geological (stratigraphic) problems. Palynologists also study the composition of beebread and pollen in honey (mellittopalynology). The study of pollen grains and spores is valuable in determining the causes of certain types of allergies (medical palynology). Spore-pollen analysis is also used in criminology (forensic palynology). The use of spores and pollen grains for the production of alloyed steel is also under study.

REFERENCES

Neishtadt, M. I. Palinologiia v SSSR (1952–1957). Moscow, 1960.
Sladkov, A. N. Vvedenie v sporovo-pyl’tsevoi analiz. Moscow, 1967.
Erdtman, G. Introduction till palynologin. Stockholm, 1963.

A. N. SLADKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
We hope this review might raise awareness of orbicules and inspire a new generation of molecular biologists, palynologists, and systematists alike to explore the potential of orbicules in their own field of research.
Archaeobotanical investigations in medieval towns of Finland (Vuorela & Hiekkanen 1991; Vuorela & Lempiainen 1993; Vuorela 1994), as well as attempts made in this field in the suburban areas of medieval Tallinn (Kihno 1995a), encouraged the archaeologist Mare Aun to involve both an archaeobotanist and a palynologist in the project (Hiie 1995; 2002; Kihno 1995b).
Editors), Palynology: Principles and Applications, American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, v.
But palynologists, who study pollen and spores, say the plant grains are nothing to sneeze at.
Examining these questions are paleontology'sallied disciplines: sedimentologists study fossil ripple marks, paleobotanists fossil plants, palynologists fossil pollen.
He is the past president of the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, the past president of the Society for Organic Petrology, and is a member and fellow of the Geological Society of America and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Palynologists abroad often combined pollen data of Chenopodiaceae
The scarcity of Vitis pollen is probably due to the nature of pollen sites typically used by palynologists, which tend to be peatlands some distance from potential vineyard sites and the prime production, dispersal and preservation of Vitis-type pollen.
Today, researchers in structural botany are commonly wood anatomists, or flower morphologists, or palynologists, or seed anatomists, or vegetative morphologists.
Soil pollen had been avoided by most palynologists, who preferred to work on the better-preserved and more stratigraphically stable pollen found in peat deposits, and it is largely through his perseverance that soil-pollen analysis has come to be more widely accepted by palaeoecologists (Dimbleby 1985).