Several pathologies can result in anatomical and functional abnormalities of the papillary muscle
as ischemia, fibrosis and rupture (Roberts & Cohen, 1972) and also of the chordae tendineae that are abnormally long, abnormally short, ectopically inserted or ruptured (Caulfield et al., 1971; Perloff & Roberts; Scott-Jupp et al., 1981).
The electron microscopic appearance of mitochondria from nonischemic posterior papillary muscles
was compared with that of the ischemic anterior papillary muscle
in the animals that had undergone only 10 or 15 min of coronary occlusion.
After consultations with specialists in structural heart disease and cardiothoracic surgery, the patient ultimately underwent cardiac surgery consisting of very gentle septal myectomy focusing more midventricular at the basilar septum, reorientation of the posterior medial papillary muscle
head, resection of the tethering secondary chordae to the A1 segment of the mitral valve, and chordal shortening and tacking of the chordae to the A1 and A2 segments of the mitral valve.
cross-sectional area (CSA) was calculated from muscle weight and length by assuming cylindrical uniformity and specific gravity of 1.0.
 Abnormalities of septal papillary muscle
and its chordae are related to defects in fusion of ventricular and bulbar musculature and are often associated with malformation of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve.
To evaluate contractile reserve, mechanical papillary muscle
performance was evaluated at basal condition and after the following inotropic stimulation: postrest contraction, extracellular [Ca.sup.2+] concentration increase, and beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol addition to the nutrient solution .
Real-time three dimension TEE demonstrating the accessory papillary muscle
extending from the interventricular septum to the LVOT
With no clinical or pathological evidence either before death or at the time of autopsy for AMI or for CAD, the current case is classifiable as a spontaneous papillary muscle
Nair compared the outcomes of 8 patients who underwent suturing of their papillary muscles
plus bypass surgery with 32 similar patients who were treated with bypass surgery only.
The star indicates the papillary muscles
. LA: left atrium; RV: right ventricle.
In our experience, usually, the major part of the anterior leaflet was not downward displaced and attached in the normal position of the tricuspid annulus, while, often with poor leaflet development, reduced motion, poor development of the papillary muscles
and chordae tendineae.
Dysfunction: Papillary muscle
dysfunction occurred in 11 patients (11%).