para-nitrotoluene

para-nitrotoluene

[¦par·ə ¦nī·trō′täl·yə‚wēn]
(organic chemistry)
NO2C6H4CH3 Yellow crystals that melt at 51.7°C; insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol; used to produce toluidine and to manufacture dyes.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the present investigation, solid acid catalyzed nitration of toluene is carried out in batch and semi-batch modes of operation with and without continuous withdrawal of water formed during the reaction and the effect of process parameters viz., morphology of toluene-nitric acid dispersion, speed of agitation, temperature, catalyst/toluene and toluene/nitric acid ratios, dosing rate of reactants, boil-up rate (BR), and micro reaction environment and its influence on lattice aluminum transformation in catalyst are studied to achieve significant selectivity and yield enhancement of para-nitrotoluene.
Effect of catalyst to toluene ratio Catalyst/ Percent ONT MNT PNT Others Para/ Tol(g/mol) Tol ortho conversion ratio Nil 27.4 16.90 1.00 7.08 2.46 0.42 2.26 34.9 22.05 1.75 8.57 2.50 0.39 4.50 38.5 23.19 1.49 11.70 2.17 0.50 6.80 38.2 22.92 1.47 11.67 2.14 0.51 9.10 38.4 23.12 1.48 11.69 2.11 0.51 Toluene/nitric acid (molar ratio) = 2.2:1.4; agitation speed = 200 rpm; temperature under reflux =120[degrees]C; time = 3 h; batch experiments with azeotropic water removal; ONT: ortho-nitrotoluene; MNT: meta-nitrotoluene; PNT: para-nitrotoluene. Table 5.
Mononitration of toluene to provide a mixture of ortho, meta, and para-nitrotoluenes is an important process for producing an array of downstream organic intermediates with a good industrial potential (Elvers et al., 1991).