In order to further explore the connection between PDE4D and the SHH pathway, the researchers used a microchannel device in which mesenchymal and LnCaP cells were physically separated and able to communicate solely via paracrine signaling
. With this model for stromal-epithelial signaling, they demonstrated that a) activation of the SHH pathway in the mesenchymal cells stimulated LnCap-C4 cell proliferation and b) treatment with the PDE inhibitors eliminated the SHH-dependent LnCap-C4 cell proliferation.
Uroguanylin and guanylate cyclase C in the human pancreas: expression and mutuality of ligand/ receptor localization as indicators of intercellular paracrine signaling
Although a comprehensive answer to this question remains elusive, the considerable efforts described in this review seem to cast TAMs in glioma as a formidable foe, espousing an altered activation state within the local tumor microenvironment characterized by deficiencies in antitumor effector functions, upregulation of potent immunosuppressive mediators, and participation in tumorigenic loops of paracrine signaling
involving expression of trophic factors and their cognate receptors.
Interplay between paracrine signaling
and gap junctional communication in ovarian follicles.
For example, adipose mesenchymal stem cell--(ASC-) derived extracellular vesicles can contribute to paracrine signaling
Additionally, paracrine signaling
and the release of soluble factors (e.g., VEGF) by MSC are found to promote angiogenesis at the wound bed after cutaneous injury in normal and diabetic mice [124, 125].
Ashraf, "Bone marrow stem cells prevent left ventricular remodeling of ischemic heart through paracrine signaling
," Circulation Research, vol.
However, the functionality and action of these cells are dependent on some factors derived from the oocyte, capable of acting directly in the coordinated processes of follicular maturation through a paracrine signaling
(Hutt and Albertini, 2007; Li et al., 2008b).
Many receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, chemokines, and autocrine and paracrine signaling
molecules interact with heterotrimeric G proteins to exert their actions on target cells ; these receptors are considered G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) .
Heart After Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation and Paracrine Signaling
The murine Agouti gene encodes a paracrine signaling
molecule that promotes follicular melanocytes to produce yellow phaeomelanin pigment instead of black eumelanin pigment.
It was reported that the reparative effect of stem cells was mediated by paracrine signaling
with the release of biologically active molecules affecting cell migration and/or proliferation .