paradigm

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paradigm

(in the philosophy of science) a very general conception of the nature of scientific endeavour within which a given enquiry is undertaken

paradigm

  1. any example or representative instance of a concept or a theoretical approach, e.g. MERTON's (1949) summary exemplifying discussion of the strengths and pitfalls of functional analysis in sociology. In some branches of philosophy a ‘paradigm case’ is seen as providing an ‘ostensive definition’ of a concept.
  2. see SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM.

Paradigm

 

a system of the various inflectional forms of a word. A paradigm shows the way a word’s appearance is modified according to the grammatical categories inherent in a word. A noun, for example, has inflectional forms for gender, number, and case, and a verb for person, tense, and aspect. A paradigm is a pattern of change in a word, based on grammatical categories. It is an example of a declension or conjugation.

Since a paradigm is characterized by lexical identicalness of a stem, it is frequently represented as a table of endings that are to serve as a model for the inflection of a given part of speech or for the derivation of word forms (formoobrazovanie). A description of a paradigm takes into account the number of members in the set (a paradigm is a closed series of forms), the order in which the members are arranged, the endings of each member of the paradigm, and the possible morphophonemic transformations of the stem and/or endings. Any restricted system of secondary formations with a single base is often called a paradigm; such a paradigm may be morphological, lexical, derivational, or some other type. Linguists usually use the concept of syntactic paradigm to designate a system of forms of a sentence, as in syn uchitsia (“the son is studying”), syn uchilsia (“the son studied”), and so forth.

Paradigms may be either partial (or minor), consisting of groups of forms with a certain organization, or complete (major), comprising a complement of partial paradigms. In Russian, for example, the complete paradigm of adjectives includes three singular paradigms, one plural paradigm, one paradigm of short forms, and the forms for the degrees of comparison.

E. S. KUBRIAKOVA

paradigm

Pronounced "pah-ruh-dime." A model, example or pattern. See paradigm shift and metaphor.
References in periodicals archive ?
We then evaluated the reliability of the new tool in a pilot study of known paradigmatic groups (Sanagorski, Murphrey, Lawver, Baker, & Lindner, 2013).
That is, the text is broken into paradigmatic form; its linearity is repeatedly interrupted.
To search for whether people from different cultures store English words in their minds in different ways, or what elements determine people's lexicon, I rearranged the data to see how many words each group would respond to in a paradigmatic way, how many in a syntagmatic way, and how many would use a phonological approach.
This shift in foci causes underlying paradigmatic assumptions to also be different.
This sinister appropriation, with ad lingo intact, would seem to swerve Richard Prince's paradigmatic late-'70s images of living rooms and men in suits into an even more blatant critique of the corporate fetish, one that finally is stripped of its flimsy allegorical armature when it is disclosed that Oakhurst Terrace is rumored to belong to one of Kordansky's most important collectors.
Eisenman says that the grid of the rooms is 'rotated against the logic of the field, thereby thwarting any paradigmatic understanding of its formal arrangement'.
In this work we will demonstrate the power of this methodology using some paradigmatic examples: the dissociation of the Hydrogen molecule, the isomerization reaction of Butane and the electronic and geometrical structure of Ibuprofen, commonly known as Advil.
For Hogue, to be characterized as a victim of racial oppression is to be defined negatively by "someone else's discourse," a discourse that is governed by the interests "of a single paradigmatic perspective in which white, middle-class America is seen as the unique source of meaning, as the US center of gravity, and as the ontological 'reality' for the rest of the country.
Few wondered why the industry likes to keep it black, why today's paradigmatic MC is nine-bullet-ridden 50 Cent (instead of, say, metaphysics-kicking KRS-ONE) or how instinctively labeling non-black rappers weird novelties belied their growing conviction that hip-hop was everywhere.
In all of these areas, the paradigmatic axis is found to generate similarity effects whereas the syntagmatic axis gives rise to both similarity and contrast.
Tos (who helped the parish become a paradigmatic expression of Vatican II principals and sponsored a superb series of millennium lectures that attracted Raymond Brown, Michael Novak, Avery Dulles, Cardinal Martini, and Mary Gordon, among others).