paraffin

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Related to paraffinic: naphthenic

paraffin,

white, more-or-less translucent, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid. It melts between 47°C; and 65°C; and is insoluble in water but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters. Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents but burns readily in air. Obtained from petroleum during refining, it is used in candles, for coating paper, and for various other purposes. Chemically, paraffin is a mixture of high-molecular-weight alkanesalkane
, any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single bonds (see chemical bond). Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2.
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, i.e., saturated hydrocarbonshydrocarbon
, any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon.
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 with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is an integer between 22 and 27.

Paraffin

 

a petroleum product that consists of a mixture of predominantly straight-chain alkanes that range from nine to 40 carbon atoms in length. Isoparaffin, cycloparaffin, and naphtheno-aromatic hydrocarbons are also found in paraffin. Solid paraffin, which melts between 45° and 70°C, is primarily obtained from oily distillates of paraffin-base petroleum. In this process, the crude mixture of paraffin and oil is dewaxed by crystallization. Paraffin is also extracted from petroleum fractions through the selective adsorption of straight-chain alkanes by zeolites. Liquid paraffin, which boils off between 180° and 360°C, is obtained during the urea dewaxing of certain petroleum products. Commercial paraffin undergoes preliminary adsorbent processing and is then purified by other methods.

Because of its chemical neutrality and various other properties, paraffin is widely used in the food industry, in medicine, in the manufacture of cosmetics and perfumes, and as an insulating material in electrical engineering. It also serves as a raw material for the petrochemical industry in the manufacture of such substances as higher fatty acids, higher alcohols, and detergents. Several brands of paraffin are currently available, including fully refined paraffin, semirefined paraffin, and medicinal paraffin.

REFERENCE

Pereverzev, A. N., N. F. Bogdanov, and lu. N. Roshchin.
Proizvodstvo parafinov. Moscow, 1973.

I. P. LUKASHEVICH

paraffin

[′par·ə·fən]
(materials)

paraffin

(less commonly), paraffine
1. a liquid mixture consisting mainly of alkane hydrocarbons with boiling points in the range 150°--300°C, used as an aircraft fuel, in domestic heaters, and as a solvent
2. another name for alkane
3. See paraffin wax
References in periodicals archive ?
It contains white paraffinic oil as softener and 30% CaC03 as filler.
Paraffinic Hydrocarbons: Saturated hydrocarbon compounds with the general formula [C.
ISO 32 Naphthenic and Paraffinic Mineral Oil and ISO VG32 Alkylbenzene in C[O.
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the presence of paraffinic oil in the devulcanization of EPDM rubber, using the microwave process.
50 a tonne to its own formula on a free-on-board (FOB) basis, and paraffinic grade at $12.
Testing of bio-derived blends of generic synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), called hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ), has been under way for more than a year and a report about the research findings is expected to be complete by the end of 2009, says Mark Rumizen, US Federal Aviation Administration certification and qualification team leader for the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI), a consortium of aerospace firms, trade groups and the FAA.
Propane, butane and paraffinic naphtha produced at Habshan-5 will be exported.
Once approved by ASTM, and accepted by the Federal Aviation Administration, synthetic paraffinic kerosene from the Fischer-Tropsch process (FT-SPK) can be blended with conventional fuels and used as a substitute to crude oil-derived jet fuel by airlines, private aviation, and the military.
People in the Air Mobility Command Test and Evaluation Squadron evaluated the suitability of JP-8 fuel blended with 50 percent synthetic paraffinic kerosene fuel (Fischer-Tropsch) for use in a KC-135R aircraft.
The plant, which produces liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), paraffinic naphtha and sulfur, currently flares an estimated 10-15 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) of sweet and sour gas.
The first grades are fully paraffinic, though future products soon to be added will include non-paraffinic types.
The final chapters discuss the production of food grade white oils and paraffins and the gas-to-liquids processes used to produce highlight paraffinic base stocks via Fischer-Tropsch chemistry.