Insular cortex through interconnection with cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus
(paralimbic areas) is believed to be involved in consciousness and plays a role in diverse functions including perception, motor control, self-awareness, social cognition, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience .
Compared to the normal elderlies, ReHo values decreased in aMCI patients in the left temporal lobe (middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus), left parahippocampal gyrus
, occipital lobe, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and other regions.
Mesulam et al (2009) Changes in temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus
. Everything in the left hemisphere.
That's because the control group showed a similar degree of improvement in ADHD symptoms immediately after learning to upregulate the left parahippocampal gyrus
, although their scores did backslide modestly during 11 months of follow-up, while the IFC group continued to improve.
In this study, regression analysis of group asymmetry indices demonstrated a more pronounced decreasing trend from baseline to follow-up visits in MCI converters, compared with nonconverters, in the language-related and memory-related cortical regions, including the banks of the superior temporal sulcus, caudal middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pars triangularis, entorhinal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus
. The observation is consistent with the common understanding that AD is characterized by progressively worsening deficits in language  and memory .
In addition, reduced GMV in the bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus
of DMN has been observed in a voxel-based morphometry study .
Abbreviations: alv, alveus; CA1-CA4, hippocampal sectors CA 1 to 4; cp, choroid plexus; cs, collateral sulcus; Fd, fascia dentata (dentate gyrus); Fg, fusiform gyrus; fmb, fimbria; Ins, insula; Itc, inferior temporal cortex; lv, lateral ventricle; or, optic radiations; pc, posterior commissure; pca, posterior cerebral artery; Phg, parahippocampal gyrus
; Post Thal, posterior thalamus (pulvinar); PreS, presubiculum; Sub, subiculum; TCd, tail of the caudate nucleus (H&E, original magnifications X400 [B] and X100 [E]; TDP-43, original magnifications X400 [C, D, F, G, I] and X600 [H]; [beta] amyloid, original magnification X100 [J]).
Studies with psilocybin and LSD also show that these drugs produce their effects by modulating brain structures involved in emotional processing and in memory and self-awareness, such as the parahippocampal gyrus
, visual and frontal cortices, ACC and PCC, insula and amygdala (15,21,25,26,30,31).
Six neuroanatomical loci were selected as points of measurement wherein the needle electrode was inserted directly: the amygdala (by way of the uncus), middle frontal gyrus, orbital frontal gyrus, occipital pole, superior parietal lobule, and the parahippocampal gyrus
. Both the right and left hemispheric structural equivalents were probed.
37 R Culmen, anterior cerebellum R Fusiform gyrus 37 R Middle frontal gyrus 46 R Claustrum R Middle frontal gyrus 32 L Inferior occipital gyrus 19 R Parahippocampal gyrus
36 L Parahippocampal gyrus
37 L Inferior frontal gyrus 9 L Middle frontal gyrus 6 R Insula 13 L Inferior frontal gyrus 9 R Precuneus 7 R Parahippocampal gyrus
27 R Amygdala R Inferior occipital gyrus 19 L Middle occipital gyrus 18 L Lingual gyrus 18 R Lingual gyrus 18 L Inferior occipital gyrus 18 R Anterior cingulate cortex 32 L Anterior cingulate cortex R Parahippocampal gyrus
27 L Precentral gyrus 4 L Amygdala L Amygdala L Table 2: Comparative analysis of the six reviewed models.
The structures that generate "emotionally driven" laughter movement are the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus
, thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamic regions and the dorsal tegmental brainstem (9).
Brain parts that help in learning languages include the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, and the parahippocampal gyrus