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Related to paralanguage: proxemics
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a branch of linguistics studying sound features that accompany speech but do not pertain to language. Paralinguistics studies, for example, loudness of speech, uncodified variations in intonation, the distribution of pauses, and sounds used to fill pauses, such as mmm … in Russian or “hmm …” in English.

The concept of paralinguistics was introduced in the late 1940’s by the American linguist A. Hill, but Soviet scholars had been investigating paralinguistic phenomena as early as the 1930’s (N. V. Iushmanov’s Extranormal Phonetics). In a broader interpretation, paralinguistics includes kinesics, the study of the facial expressions and gestures in relation to communication. Modern Soviet linguistics devotes a good deal of attention to paralinguistics partly because of the general theoretical interest in the structure and flow of communication. In addition, paralinguistics is studied for the practical reasons of determining how various speech techniques influence listeners and of identifying emotional states through speech.


Nikolaeva, T. M., and Uspenskii, B. A. “Iazykoznanie i paralingvistika.” In the collection Lingvisticheskie issledovaniia po obshchei i slavianskoi tipologii. Moscow, 1966.
Kolshanskii, G. V. Paralingvistika. Moscow, 1974.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Also, the paralanguage considerations, along with the non-verbal clues given by both characters have shown how these can speak more and louder than words.
The repeated use of the words 'non-verbal' draw attention to the title of the paper which has to do with 'paralanguage'.
An embattled chateau is "alarmed-looking," while nearly abandoned apartment blocks have a "drained-ocean dreaminess." Pieces of deck floating in the water look "as if someone sloppy had tried to lay a parquet on the sea." In contrast to these fanciful renderings of place, there is an aggressive naturalism to the dialogue, and McConnell's ear for the paralanguage of the different characters is evident early on.
Both spoken and written messages, plus the accompanying paralanguage, can be translated semiotically, and equally referred to nonverbal languages.
A quick survey of writing center publications reveals few references to language beyond the word, and those too general to be helpful: "body movements, posture, proximity and use of space, bodily contact, hand gestures, head-nods, facial expression, eye contact and gaze, appearance, and paralanguage" send "(r lot of information, often conflicting information to clients (Claywell 13) ; tutors should study "body language, eye-movement, and facial expression" (Black 84); they should "avoid facial expression that could be misinterpreted by students.
Tu and McIsaac (2002), who describe CMC as lean, found students used "emoticons and paralanguage to compensate for the lack of social context cues" (p.
Evolution and facial action in reflex, social motive, and paralanguage. Biological Psychology, 32, 3-100.
of New Brunswick) explores the spatial, temporal, and other non-verbal experiences of book readers and play and movie audiences, and how translators can perceive implicit paralanguage and kinesics in texts.
In general, codes can be defined through verbal and nonverbal language, paralanguage, and discourse (Cheng, 2007; Cooley, 1983; Gudykunst, 1983).