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a branch of linguistics studying sound features that accompany speech but do not pertain to language. Paralinguistics studies, for example, loudness of speech, uncodified variations in intonation, the distribution of pauses, and sounds used to fill pauses, such as mmm … in Russian or “hmm …” in English.

The concept of paralinguistics was introduced in the late 1940’s by the American linguist A. Hill, but Soviet scholars had been investigating paralinguistic phenomena as early as the 1930’s (N. V. Iushmanov’s Extranormal Phonetics). In a broader interpretation, paralinguistics includes kinesics, the study of the facial expressions and gestures in relation to communication. Modern Soviet linguistics devotes a good deal of attention to paralinguistics partly because of the general theoretical interest in the structure and flow of communication. In addition, paralinguistics is studied for the practical reasons of determining how various speech techniques influence listeners and of identifying emotional states through speech.


Nikolaeva, T. M., and Uspenskii, B. A. “Iazykoznanie i paralingvistika.” In the collection Lingvisticheskie issledovaniia po obshchei i slavianskoi tipologii. Moscow, 1966.
Kolshanskii, G. V. Paralingvistika. Moscow, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
In the absence of research on the topic in translation and interpreting studies, and given the relevance of prosody to the documentation of oral conversation, it is worth exploring the extension of application of pertinent notions in conversation analysis, in particular prosodic and paralinguistic cues, to the translation of EAR.
In most of the research done so far, public speech has been treated same as written text and almost no attention has been paid to paralinguistic factors, such as, pitch, pause, pace and intensity.
Appearance, posture, movements, micro-expressions, eye contact, paralinguistic delivery and contact (shaking hands) to name a few.
Furthermore, they will attempt to do so using media that are limited in terms of transmission velocity, multiplicity of cues, personal focus and paralinguistic cues.
Through this choice of language and paralinguistic emphasis, Cohen demonstrates the simultaneous resentment of and desire for public attention that David Boucher claims have marked the poet-songwriter's career (43).
70-1) is probably most graphically rendered in the great Malay epic, Hikayat Hang Tuah, which describes the extraordinary paralinguistic power exercised by Hang Tuah's companion, Hang Jebat, as he reads a story to the Melaka ruler and the palace women.
It also presents a new model of spontaneous discourse comprehension that can accommodate paralinguistic factors, like pitch and prosody, and other communication channels and their relation to cognitive processes.
As Kress notes, such shots constitute an "image act," placing a demand on the viewer "to enter into some kind of imaginary relationship" (122) that will be shaped by the specific contexts, the cinematography and the paralinguistic features associated with it.
While transcribing the conversations, Katherine listened to them multiple times for intonation and paralinguistic features.
Speech is a complex acoustic signal that contains both linguistic and paralinguistic information.
The ROPSS is composed of scripts for the performances of professional social skills in structured situations, captured through video recordings in order to identify verbal, nonverbal and paralinguistic components as well as the quality of the performance on a five point Likert scale, (0 =Absent; 1 = Bad; 2 = Not good or bad; 3 = Good; 4 = Very Good).
They discuss an attorney's demeanor, verbal communications, paralinguistic communications, kinesic communications, relationship with the client, and storytelling.