Paralinguistics

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Related to paralinguistic: paralinguistic communication, proxemics, paralinguistic cues

Paralinguistics

 

a branch of linguistics studying sound features that accompany speech but do not pertain to language. Paralinguistics studies, for example, loudness of speech, uncodified variations in intonation, the distribution of pauses, and sounds used to fill pauses, such as mmm … in Russian or “hmm …” in English.

The concept of paralinguistics was introduced in the late 1940’s by the American linguist A. Hill, but Soviet scholars had been investigating paralinguistic phenomena as early as the 1930’s (N. V. Iushmanov’s Extranormal Phonetics). In a broader interpretation, paralinguistics includes kinesics, the study of the facial expressions and gestures in relation to communication. Modern Soviet linguistics devotes a good deal of attention to paralinguistics partly because of the general theoretical interest in the structure and flow of communication. In addition, paralinguistics is studied for the practical reasons of determining how various speech techniques influence listeners and of identifying emotional states through speech.

REFERENCES

Nikolaeva, T. M., and Uspenskii, B. A. “Iazykoznanie i paralingvistika.” In the collection Lingvisticheskie issledovaniia po obshchei i slavianskoi tipologii. Moscow, 1966.
Kolshanskii, G. V. Paralingvistika. Moscow, 1974.

A. A. LEONT’EV

References in periodicals archive ?
For instance, in Part II, McIntyre's chapter not only deals with dramatic performance on the stage but also considers the effects of hearing-impaired subtitling on characterization; in Part III, Jobert's chapter extends to paralinguistic vocal features in written texts; and in Part IV Gibbons' chapter offers a Text World Theory analysis of mobile narrative, a genre previously unexplored in stylistics.
2) Seven percent is due to the words alone, 38 percent depends upon paralinguistic delivery and 55 percent from facial expressions.
Through this choice of language and paralinguistic emphasis, Cohen demonstrates the simultaneous resentment of and desire for public attention that David Boucher claims have marked the poet-songwriter's career (43).
The type of distractions that are filtered out in communication over a less rich medium are usually visual and audio-based cues, with paralinguistic cues (predominantly text-based) among the only ones that are successfully transmitted via CMC (Rao and Lim, 2000).
Firstly, they are intended to stimulate students' awareness of the extralinguistic and paralinguistic aspects of communication through a focus on pronunciation and gestures.
Additionally, she believes that CLT does not sufficiently address socio-linguistic and paralinguistic errors, which can easily lead to "breakdowns in communication or cause serious offense or insult.
2005), the educative component of SST included teaching the participants about the three expressive domains: (a) speech content, (b) paralinguistic characteristics of speech (volume and tone of voice, timing), and (c) non-verbal behavior (proximity, eye contact, facial expressions), using them in different social contexts.
In each interview the non-leading interviewer would act as note-recorder--and this would include corroborating or contradictory paralinguistic cues such as body language, tone and gesture.
As Kress notes, such shots constitute an "image act," placing a demand on the viewer "to enter into some kind of imaginary relationship" (122) that will be shaped by the specific contexts, the cinematography and the paralinguistic features associated with it.
While transcribing the conversations, Katherine listened to them multiple times for intonation and paralinguistic features.
Speech is a complex acoustic signal that contains both linguistic and paralinguistic information.
Consequently, while the literal content of the speech may be understood, the subtle paralinguistic information that enhances communication may be lost.