The input impedance of spiral antenna can be evaluated by the parallel impedance
The receiver noise is due to the parallel impedance
that we propose to use as IMN before the first amplification stage of the front-end, that is, the VGA.
The structure is analyzed as a symmetrical lattice network with serial impedance [[Z.sup.*].sub.a] and parallel impedance
For a diode in parallel with a microstrip line, shown in Figure 1b, the radiation factor is given by a parallel impedance
The gaps between the high parallel impedances
in the hairpin resonator can be easily used to control a capacitance without changing the dimensions of the resonator.