tsiltcoosensis) may be paraphyletic
(Taylor and others 2015; Kettratad and Markle 2010).
In the Hierarchical-Sets pangenome (Figure 2), virulence gene (Figure 3), and BEAST2 ST21 (Figure 4) analyses, New Zealand isolates show monophyletic clades, whereas Japan isolates are paraphyletic
with US isolates.
(2018a), who included a larger sample of taxa, found that the 'reticulate-sheathed' Tetraria clade is nested in a paraphyletic
grade of Costularia subgenus Lophoschoenus species.
That the Microcreagrinae was recovered as paraphyletic
in our analysis is not surprising given the number of authors who have commented on the heterogeneity of this subfamily and the potential for paraphyly (e.g., Vachon 1946; Mahnert 1974; Murienne et al.
Phylogeny of the hard ticks (Ixodidae) inferred from 18S rRNA indicates that the genus Aponnoma is paraphyletic
. Mol Phylogenet Evol 1999; 11: 288-95.
The necrotauliids have been considered to be primitive trichopterans, advanced stem-amphiesmenopterans, and a paraphyletic
assemblage of primitive trichopterans, primitive lepidopterans, and stem-amphiesmenopterans.
Remarkably, the former family "Sabellidae" was found to be paraphyletic
, necessitating the elevation of the sabellid subfamily Fabriciinae to full family rank (Kupriyanova and Rouse, 2008; Capa et al., 2011).
Molecular and taxonomical studies have supported their independence (Kadereit et al.; 2007; Steffen et al., 2010; Guillo, 2013), but the more recent studies with many sampled species and wide distribution have supported their assimilation, because Salicornia is nested within Sarcocornia, which means that Sarcocornia is a paraphyletic
taxon (Steffen et al., 2015; Piraiinen et al., 2017).
(2010) carried out one of the largest studies concerning Bryophyta in terms of taxonomic sampling, where a considerable number of pleurocarpous families were resolved as paraphyletic
The genus Sinopodisma emerged as a highly paraphyletic
group in which species did not appear closely related and nested in different clades.
Lactarius, once characterized as monophyletic group (Miller et al., 2006) with a striking character of exuding milk is now split into two genera, Lactarius and Lactifluus and is paraphyletic
A fish is any member of a group of paraphyletic
organisms that include non-tetrapod, aquatic animals, which present a cranium and most of the time, breathe through gills and which do not have members with digits.