paratyphoid


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Related to paratyphoid: parathyroid, enteric fever

paratyphoid:

see salmonellosissalmonellosis
, any of a group of infectious diseases caused by intestinal bacteria of the genus Salmonella, including typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, blood poisoning, and food poisoning (gastroenteritis).

Typhoid fever, caused by S.
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Paratyphoid

 

any one of several intestinal infections caused by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella. A distinction is made between paratyphoids A and B, which are similar in etiology, epidemiology, and clinical symptoms to typhoid, and paratyphoid C, which usually occurs as a food poisoning.

Paratyphoid C occurs rarely, generally in persons weakened by other infections or by chronic disease. The sources of infection are cattle, swine, and other animals, and man becomes infected by eating insufficiently cooked meat of diseased animals.

In paratyphoids A and B the source of infection is a human being, either infected or a carrier. The carrier state results more often after a case of paratyphoid than after typhoid, but it is usually of shorter duration. The bacteria are excreted with feces and urine. They are stable in the external environment, surviving up to ten days in milk at 18° to 20°C and several months in soil. The factors involved in transmission of the infection are water, food, flies, and infected articles.

The incubation period ranges from three days to two weeks. Paratyphoids differ from typhoid in having a more acute onset, comparatively mild course, and shorter duration of illness. The main symptoms are chills, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever of about 39°C, and, frequently, diarrhea.

Laboratory studies for an accurate diagnosis include, in the first few days of the disease, isolation of the causative agent from blood and later from urine and bile and subsequent serological tests. Prevention and treatment are the same as for typhoid.

REFERENCE

Obshchaia i chastnaia epidemiologiia: Rukovodstvo dlia vrachei, vol. 1. Edited by I. I. Elkin. Moscow, 1973.

V. L. VASILEVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
To analyze the genomic epidemiology of paratyphoid fever in these provinces, we first selected 96 Salmonella Paratyphi A strains circulating in 15 provinces in China during 1998-2011 (online Technical Appendix Table 1).
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Paratyphi A causes paratyphoid fever which is less common but clinically similar to enteric fever [1].
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It includes typhoid fever (caused by salmonella typhi) and paratyphoid fever (caused by S.
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Newton and her colleagues analyzed 2008-2010 data from the National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance database, which contains demographic information, travel history and typhoid vaccination status for 5 years before illness onset in cases reported to the CDC.
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