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Related to paratyphoid: parathyroid, enteric fever


see salmonellosissalmonellosis
, any of a group of infectious diseases caused by intestinal bacteria of the genus Salmonella, including typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, blood poisoning, and food poisoning (gastroenteritis).

Typhoid fever, caused by S.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



any one of several intestinal infections caused by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella. A distinction is made between paratyphoids A and B, which are similar in etiology, epidemiology, and clinical symptoms to typhoid, and paratyphoid C, which usually occurs as a food poisoning.

Paratyphoid C occurs rarely, generally in persons weakened by other infections or by chronic disease. The sources of infection are cattle, swine, and other animals, and man becomes infected by eating insufficiently cooked meat of diseased animals.

In paratyphoids A and B the source of infection is a human being, either infected or a carrier. The carrier state results more often after a case of paratyphoid than after typhoid, but it is usually of shorter duration. The bacteria are excreted with feces and urine. They are stable in the external environment, surviving up to ten days in milk at 18° to 20°C and several months in soil. The factors involved in transmission of the infection are water, food, flies, and infected articles.

The incubation period ranges from three days to two weeks. Paratyphoids differ from typhoid in having a more acute onset, comparatively mild course, and shorter duration of illness. The main symptoms are chills, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever of about 39°C, and, frequently, diarrhea.

Laboratory studies for an accurate diagnosis include, in the first few days of the disease, isolation of the causative agent from blood and later from urine and bile and subsequent serological tests. Prevention and treatment are the same as for typhoid.


Obshchaia i chastnaia epidemiologiia: Rukovodstvo dlia vrachei, vol. 1. Edited by I. I. Elkin. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
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(23.) Crump JA, Mintz ED, Global Trends in Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever, Clin Infect Dis 2010; :241-6.
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Typhi as it usually involves smaller inocula than paratyphoid achieved through food borne transmission that requires large inocula [30].
Chickenpox, influenza, mumps, scabies, typhoid and paratyphoid, hepatitis (B,C,D) and other zoonotic ailments or those relating to an animal disease that can infect humans will be reported to authorities within a week.
Of the 32 Salmonella isolates, the predominant serotype was Salmonella typhimurium which accounted for more than 40% (13/32) of isolates, followed by paratyphoid B and Salmonella enteritidis.
He died from disease (paratyphoid) in 1916, when he was 27, and is buried in Amara War Cemetery (now Iraq).
In Calcutta she suffered from paratyphoid fever, and in Karachi she contracted polio, which left her with a disability.
Anaphylactoid purpura, also known as HSP, is an IgA-mediated vasculitis due to antigen-antibody complexes resulting from bacterial (Hemophilus influenza, parainfluenza, mycoplasma, Legionella, Yersinia, Shigella and Salmonella species) and viral (adenoviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, parvoviruses and varicella) infections, vaccinations (cholera, measles, paratyphoid A and B, typhoid, and yellow fever), medications (ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin, quinidine, and quinine) or autoimmune disorders (2).
Inadequate WS practices and services lead to a higher prevalence of waterborne diseases, such as acute diarrhea (mostly among infants and children), hepatitis, typhoid and paratyphoid enteric fevers, and intestinal parasites and other parasitic diseases (6).
It is an infectious disease manifested in three forms--gastroenteritis, involving nausea, fever, vomiting and diarrhoea, enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) and septicemia, usually characterized by fever, anorexia, anaemia and local lesions on visceral organs (Samuel, 1996).