To analyze the genomic epidemiology of paratyphoid fever
in these provinces, we first selected 96 Salmonella Paratyphi A strains circulating in 15 provinces in China during 1998-2011 (online Technical Appendix Table 1).
, caused primarily by Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A, but also by serotypes Paratyphi B (tartrate negative) and C, is an illness clinically indistinguishable from typhoid fever (9).
Only 6% of patients with typhoid fever and 29% with paratyphoid fever
reported having received a typhoid vaccine within the past 5 years.
Acquisition during international travel was deemed confirmed if, for infections not endemic to BC (typhoid and paratyphoid fever
, cholera, cyclosporiasis, infections of S.
A note on two cases of paratyphoid fever
in which a new variety of paratyphoid bacillus was found in the blood.
infection 18 0 Paratyphoid fever
11 0 Rickettisalpox 9 0 Rocky Mountain spotted fever 6 0 Shiga toxin--producing Escherichia 96 0 coli Shigellosis 806 1.
There is one case of paratyphoid fever
for every four cases of typhoid fever Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A, which had been reported less frequently from cases of enteric fever has shown an increasing trend since 1996 in India.
The illness has nonspecific symptoms, making it difficult to distinguish clinically from other febrile illnesses (2) that might be endemic or cause epidemics in the same geographic areas, such as paratyphoid fever
, dengue, and malaria.
Dr Jeremy Hawker, HPA Regional Epidemiologist, said: "In the UK, most people who have caught typhoid fever or paratyphoid fever
are of Pakistani, Bangladeshi or Indian descent and have recently travelled to the Indian subcontinent to visit friends and relatives.
The enteric fevers, typhoid and paratyphoid fever
caused by Salmonella typhi and paratyphi A, B or C respectively, are common global infections with particularly high incidence in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and central and south America.
Meanwhile, the numbers of inpatients suffering from typhoid, paratyphoid fever
, and other Salmonella-associated infections, including other intestinal infectious diseases, was 629.
1 million illness and 217,00 deaths and paratyphoid fever
caused an estimated 5.