Parental acceptance-rejection theory asserts that regular and consistent parental rejection
in childhood may have long-lasting effects on psychological adjustment for adults (Rohner & Lansford, 2017).
Perceived Parental Rejection
was measured with the help of Urdu version of Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and Disruptive Behavior Disorders were assessed by Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) rating scale.
These findings appear to be similar with a previous study which explored that emotional abuse appear to be strongly linked with low self-assessment almost certainly because children have a propensity to internalise parental statement as part of the criteria for self-observation.13 Similarly, a study reported that parental rejection
is a significant predictor of negative self-esteem in adolescents.24 It showed that parents in Pakistani families don't have concern about the mental and emotional requirements of their child and it is more challenging for the child.
A kaleidoscope of social, economical, political and ideological reasons underpin parental rejection
or concern related to vaccinations; (6) however, herbalists and naturopaths are health care professionals whom some parents rely on to be able critically decipher and appraise information on vaccines.
Their childhood traumas, disrupted bonding, and parental rejection
are activated and their coping mechanisms and emotional stability are fragile.
In a Johns Hopkins University study, hyperparenting was more closely related to increased anxiety in children than the mental health of the parent or parental rejection
. In turn, elevated anxiety (in children and adults) is linked to depression and behavioral issues.
The results of research conducted in Pakistan indicated perceived parental rejection
was negatively related with dependency in children's personality disposition (Imam 2001; Mumtaz and Imam 2008).
We chose the composite scale to tap parental rejection
for two reasons.
To the best of my knowledge, researchers in the Arab world have not focused on parental favoritism and children's outcomes; instead, they have concentrated on another aspect of the parent-child relationship: parental rejection
(for a review, see Ahmed, Rohner, Khaleque, & Gielen, 2010).
Among the parental practices that most affect a child's socioemotional adjustment, parental rejection
(Rohner & Britner, 2002), behavioral control, and psychological control (Barber, 1996; Laird, Marrero, & Sentse, 2010) stand out.
These students experience more bullying, parental rejection
, suicide, and negative stereotyping than other students, which can affect them intrinsically or even traumatically.
It has been claimed that parental rejection
(Rohner & Britner, 2002) and parental practices of behavioural and psychological control are among the parental behaviours that most affect the children's socioemotional adjustment (Barber, 1996).