However, discontinuous single tumor nodule will be upstaged to M1b if its location is beyond the parietal pleura
, such as in the chest wall or in the diaphragm, and M1c if tumors are multiple (5).
Volume of pleural effusion = (distance between visceral and parietal pleura
in mm) x 20.
The cryoprobe tip was applied to the area of parietal pleura
to be biopsied, and the cryoprobe was activated for ~3 s by a foot-switch activation mechanism.
White arrows indicate severe adhesion by fibrin between the parietal pleura
(X) and the pulmonary pleura (Y).
lipoma: a rare intrathoracic tumor.
SFT typically appear as masses abutting the pleura; most often arising from the lung visceral pleura ([approximately equal to]80% of cases) (13), but occasionally with apparent origins from the mediastinal ([approximately equal to]1-8% of cases) or parietal pleura
In this specific case, pneumomediastinum was accompanied by diffuse subcutaneous emphysema, due to laceration of the visceral and parietal pleura
and the adjacent lung parenchyma.
(20) Approximately 60% of tumors from the visceral pleura and 30% from the parietal pleura
Pneumothorax is defined as air between the visceral and the parietal pleura
. It can be quickly life-threatening.[sup] Because of the mechanism of pneumothorax, the movement of the visceral pleura on the parietal pleura
cannot be seen because they fill with air.
Several diffuse, non-encapsulated, whitish spots were superficially scattered throughout the lungs and the parietal pleura
. No lesions were observed in the upper respiratory tract or in other organs.
This air can be seen under the skin, surrounding the pericardium, around the pulmonary and/or aortic vasculature, and/or between the parietal pleura