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the secretion of salivary glands, consisting of a clear usually slightly acid aqueous fluid of variable composition. It moistens the oral cavity, prepares food for swallowing, and initiates the process of digestion



the clear, viscid secretion of the salivary glands, with a weakly acid or weakly alkaline reaction (pH 5.6–7.6). A human adult secretes about 1.5 liters of saliva a day, and large farm animals from 40–60 to 120 liters. The composition and quantity of the saliva vary according to the consistency and chemical composition of the substances taken into the mouth and the organism’s functional condition.

Saliva contains 98.5–99.5 percent water, and dissolved anions of chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, thiocyanates, iodides, bromides, fluorides, and sulfates and the cations Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. It also contains the trace elements Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Li, Zn, and others and organic matter, including protein and its fractions (albumin, globulins), amino acids, and mucin. In addition, it contains the enzymes amylase, lactase, ly-sozyme, kallikrein, and parotin, as well as cholesterol, glucose, lactic acid, and vitamins C, B1, B12, H, and K. Saliva helps dissolve the food, thus facilitating the perception of taste and the protection of the teeth against caries. It coats the alimentary bolus, thereby enabling the food to pass easily through the esophagus into the stomach; it also affects the secretory and motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract.

The level of development, habitat, and nature of the food consumed determine the content of certain constituents in the saliva of some animals. In snakes, for example, the saliva contains toxins and serves as a means of defense and attack. In other animals, including annelid worms and some birds, the secretions of the salivary glands are rich in the sticky substances needed to glue together the materials used in building nests. The saliva of bloodsucking animals, such as leeches and mosquitoes, usually contains anticoagulants, for example, hirudin in leeches. Carnivorous animals that feed on live prey may secrete paralyzing toxins in the saliva. Many insects, some mol-lusks (for example, Helix), and vertebrates secrete salivary car-bohydrases. The saliva of some predatory cephalopods contains proteases as well as toxins and mucus.


Fiziologiia pishchevareniia. Leningrad, 1974(Rukovodstvo po fiziologii.)



The opalescent, tasteless secretions of the oral glands.
References in periodicals archive ?
Moreno, Basic Biological Sciences Relationship Between Concentration of Human Salivary Statherin and Inhibition of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation in Stimulated Human Parotid Saliva, J.
Sato (1975) demonstrated that decreases in parotid saliva secretion rates after dry forage feeding were related to increases in plasma osmolality.
Lysozyme determination in parotid saliva from patients with Sjogren syndrome.
5 L of artificial parotid saliva, a solution resembling parotid saliva (Sunagawa et al.
Age-related changes in immunoglobulin isotypes in whole and parotid saliva and serum in healthy individuals.
2B, whereas 6570 transcripts were detected in the whole saliva, the assay detected 4778, 1831,1543,2689, and 3142 transcripts in the parotid saliva, sublingual saliva, submandibular saliva, GCF, and oral epithelial cells, respectively.
In the first experimental stage, group A was the control and received the intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) while group B as the treatment was subjected to the intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution (RIHS).
16 In contrast, Challacombe SJ et al reported that no significant changes in the secretion rates in parotid saliva were found with age.
For method validation, human plasma (Etablissement Francais du sang) and parotid saliva were obtained from pooled samples collected from healthy volunteers.
2002, 2007) reported that ruminal infusion of parotid saliva and the intravenous infusion of artificial saliva reduced dry forage intake suppression caused by a reduction in circulating plasma volume which is a result of increased salivary secretion during the initial stages of dry forage feeding.