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Related to paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea: orthopnea, sleep apnea, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria


Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
history of acute destabilized HF and the presence of orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, nocturnal cough, jugular venous distension, pulmonary rales, third heart sound, and peripheral edema), the diagnostic accuracy of the whole model was increased to 87%.
Systolic Function in Heart Failure Patients Clinical Characteristics Preserved Impaired Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea 30.
The major symptoms of heart failure are fatigue, exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and dependent edema.

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