parrotfish

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parrotfish,

common name for a member of a large group of colorful reef fishes of warm seas, resembling the wrasseswrasse
, common name for a member of the large family Labridae, brilliantly colored fishes found among rocks and kelp in tropical seas. Wrasses, related to the parrotfishes (which are included in the wrasse family by some authorities), feed on mollusks and are equipped with
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 but of a larger size. Long considered a separate family, Scaridae, they are now grouped as a subfamily, Scarinae, of Labridae (the wrasse family) by some authorities. Parrotfishes, also called pollyfishes, are so named for their powerful cutting-edged beaks, formed of fused incisorlike jaw teeth. With these they scrape from the surface of coral, algae, polyps, and other small plant and animal life upon which they feed. Parrotfishes also have a set of grinding teeth, located in the throat in front of the esophagus, with which they further break up their food to prepare it for the action of digestive enzymes. Common in Florida waters are the rainbow parrotfish, Scarus guacamaia, the largest (up to 3 ft/91 cm) of the family; the red and blue parrotfishes; and the queen parrotfish, or oldwife. Parrotfishes are not valued in the United States as food except in Hawaii, where they are very popular and were once taboo (to be touched only by royalty). Parrotfishes occasionally cause illness in humans, fatal to a small percentage of consumers. Known as ciguatera, it is caused by eating fish that have ciguatoxins, acquired as a result of feeding on dinoflagellates or on fish that have fed on them. Many reef fish species, especially larger fish, can cause such poisoning. Parrotfishes are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Perciformes, family Scaridae or family Labridae.

parrotfish

1. any brightly coloured tropical marine percoid fish of the family Scaridae, having parrot-like jaws
2. Austral any of various brightly coloured marine fish of the family Labridae
3. any of various similar fishes
References in periodicals archive ?
This sort of evidence may help persuade governments to reduce the fishing of key herbivores like parrotfishes and help reefs cope with the inevitable threats posed by climate change," he added.
Parrotfishes (Scaridae) of the eastern Pacific, with a generic rearrangement of the Scarinac.
Both sexes are illustrated for species that exhibit sexual dichromatism, such as wrasses, parrotfishes, and triggerfishes.
In Micronesia, however, herbivorous fishes, particularly surgeonfishes and unicorn-fishes (Acanthuridae) and parrotfishes (Scaridae) are equally important to local fisheries, and in many areas they have dominated the catch (Amesbury et al.
Unidentified wrasse 124 Lachnolaimus maximus Hogfish Scaridae, Parrotfishes 125 Scarus guacamaia Rainbow parrotfish 126 N.