part of speech


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part of speech

The parts of speech are the primary categories of words according to their function in a sentence.
English has seven main parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions.
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part of speech,

in traditional English grammargrammar,
description of the structure of a language, consisting of the sounds (see phonology); the meaningful combinations of these sounds into words or parts of words, called morphemes; and the arrangement of the morphemes into phrases and sentences, called syntax.
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, any one of about eight major classes of words, based on the parts of speech of ancient Greek and Latin. The parts of speech are nounnoun
[Lat.,=name], in English, part of speech of vast semantic range. It can be used to name a person, place, thing, idea, or time. It generally functions as subject, object, or indirect object of the verb in the sentence, and may be distinguished by a number of formal criteria.
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, verbverb,
part of speech typically used to indicate an action. English verbs are inflected for person, number, tense and partially for mood; compound verbs formed with auxiliaries (e.g., be, can, have, do, will) provide a distinction of voice.
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, adjectiveadjective,
English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb. Adjectives and adverbs are functionally distinct in that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, while adverbs
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, adverb, interjectioninterjection,
English part of speech consisting of exclamatory words such as oh, alas, and ouch. They are marked by a feature of intonation that is usually shown in writing by an exclamation point (see punctuation). Many languages have classes like interjections.
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, prepositionpreposition,
in English, the part of speech embracing a small number of words used before nouns and pronouns to connect them to the preceding material, e.g., of, in, and about.
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, conjunctionconjunction,
in English, part of speech serving to connect words or constructions, e.g., and, but, and or. Most languages have connective particles similar to English conjunctions.
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, and pronounpronoun,
in English, the part of speech used as a substitute for an antecedent noun that is clearly understood, and with which it agrees in person, number, and gender. In English the pronouns are classified as personal (I, we, you, thou, he, she, it, they
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. Some grammarians add articles, quantifiers, and numerals. These word classes have traditional definitions in grammar books, i.e., "a noun is the name of a person, place, or thing" without reference to grammatical function. By this strict definition the word toy would be a noun in the sentence "The toy is under the tree" and in the sentence "It is a toy dog." However, an alternate method of defining parts of speech is in terms of the structural features and distribution patterns within a sentence. Thus toy would constitute a different part of speech in each of the above sentences since the word functions in different environments in each sentence, i.e., as a subject and as a modifier. Some English parts of speech (nouns, verbs, etc.) are productive classes allowing new members; others, with functional rather than lexical meaning (prepositions, articles, conjunctions) are nonproductive, having a limited number of members. See also inflectioninflection,
in grammar. In many languages, words or parts of words are arranged in formally similar sets consisting of a root, or base, and various affixes. Thus walking, walks, walker have in common the root walk and the affixes -ing, -s, and -er.
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.

Bibliography

See L. Bloomfield, Language (1933); C. Fries, The Structure of English (1952); W. N. Francis, The Structure of American English (1958); O. Jespersen, The Philosophy of Grammar (1965); F. R. Palmer, Grammar (1971); C. L. Baker, English Syntax (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
Although most English words have only one possible part of speech (thus it is impossible to get them wrong), many words have multiple possible parts of speech, and it is the responsibility of a tagger to choose the correct one for the sentence at hand.
If a part of speech is used as a preposition, it still cannot end a sentence.
To date, TTS software has primarily been used as part of speech applications that deliver frequently changing information that is difficult and expensive to handle with recorded prompts.
Developed by educators, for educators, Grammaropolis uses personification to explain the role of a single part of speech as it relates to the others, using narrative, character, and conflict to show that relationship in action.
Words are organized by part of speech, and by the general meaning (leaving, winning, writing, etc.
Each entry is identified by part of speech, inflections, order of senses, examples of usage and etymologies.
English lacks many of the morphemic markers that other languages have that can indicate what part of speech it is.