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Related to participial: participle, infinitive, gerund


Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
In the affirmative paradigm A-verbs in the 3rd person singular do not require explanation, since they are identical with the base (ila), while E-verbs in the 3rd person singular take a participial derivative =s (tole=s) and the original base can be obtained by omitting plural -t from the 3rd person plural forms (tole-t > tole-).
If, on the other hand, the verb is a linking verb, then the predicate complement (the noun or adjective that the linking verb links to its subject) will show up in the participial phrase.
Criteria and Tests Applied for Delimiting the Distinction Between Gerundial and Present Participial Clauses
Another participial function of benoni forms noted earlier is (d) complements of haya 'be: PAST' as a unique instance of an "auxiliary" verb (Berman 1980b), to express counterfactual conditions--as in (2) and (3)--or habitual past as in (4a).
This would fit the tendency mentioned by Boulonais (2011) for the use of participial constructions to be extended "from [the perception of] entities to [that of ] situations".
Here, nijaghni- modified by the adverbial instrumental ojasa 'with strength', a clear indication that we are not dealing with a true agent noun, since these are never modified by adverbs, but with a participial form.
In Langacker's (2000) usage-based model such a process is characterised in terms of a decrease in 'analysability,' which is defined as 'the extent to which speakers are cognizant of the presence and the semantic contribution of component symbolic elements', which in our case would be the verbal stem and the participial morphology.
The historical participial form itself has probably entered the TMA system as an aspectual marker with a rather limited imperfective, perhaps progressive, use, but has steadily gained ground within the imperfective realm, marginalising the former present tense to the subjunctive or contingent future, thus establishing itself (in its non-extended form) as the sole marker of present-tense reference, a development shared with many other NIA languages (Masica 1991, 288).
No que diz respeito a passiva, e importante ainda notar que e a identificacao ou selecao de uma forma participial do verbo que permite relacionar o sujeito sintatico a posicao de objeto do verbo principal, ou seja, o participio, ao nao definir o caso do objeto, acaba por viabilizar o movimento sintatico do elemento, semanticamente gerado como objeto, para a posicao de sujeito sintatico.
This sentence consists of an implied main verb and predicate adjective, which according to the usual interpretation, is becomes an actual knower' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), (21) the participial clause 'having been altered through learning' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), and an epexegesis of this participial clause 'i.
Participial passivization is necessary for these terms to become fully embedded into the Italian language thus lending to the creation of adjectives since these are most commonly formed from past participles through the passive voice of the verb.
122) Interpreted this way, "balanced" is a participial adjective, synchronically describing a characteristic of a compliant committee at the outset of its work, and "represented" is also a participial adjective, describing points of view held at the time.

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