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Related to participial: participle, infinitive, gerund


Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
There also are other minor complement types, such as complementizer + optative clauses and complementizer + participial clauses.
However, most of the possible instances involve participial expressions introducing direct speech (see Li 2009: 43-45, 52-55), and the label "historical present" may be inaccurate for such expressions.
All the participial forms found in the corpus constitute the most numerous category among the prefixed verbs.
Notice that the nonfinite complements, here represented categorically by the present participial, generally indicate a direct physical observation of the action of the complement (7a) while the finite complement may be understood either as a direct physical observation (8a) or as an indirect cognition (8b) (for further detail on a "physical" versus a "cognitive" interpretation, see Givon; Kirsner and Thompson).
9) The list includes, among others, PtP agreement and "partitive" cliticization in Catalan; the syntax of participial absolutes, which are grammatical with unaccusatives and ungrammatical with unergatives in all Romance languages (including Catalan, Spanish and Portuguese); the syntax of Ibero-Romance impersonals, which allow for bare nouns to occur postverbally with unaccusatives only (cf.
The ablaut class is by no means stagnant in early American and British English and one can distinguish the following tendencies operating among verbs with vowel gradation for tense: loss of the participial suffix -n, leveling of consonantal alternants, transfer to the weak conjugation, and, finally the competition of the relic preterite forms in <e> or <i > (brake, writ) with the ones in <o> (broke, wrote).
The contemporary dialect reveals some differences between the nominative participial form and the corresponding quotative form in some inflectional types, e.
In its most shocking moment, the eye of the passage begins with the participial phrase "Standing on the bare ground.
past stem formants -i- and -ess- are not characteristic in Gurgani; (3) personal endings are not geminated in Gurgani as they are in Mazandarani due to the shift of the old participial *-ant- from the stem to the ending; (33) (4) the old first person singular verb ending -an is present in Gurgani but not in Tabarl; (5) the original /b-/ weakens to /v-/ in Mazandarani but remains in Gurgani: bi- (Maz.
Many similar examples of participial nominalizations showing retention of tense/aspect distinction in combination with the loss of the sentential subject marking are documented in Koptjevskaja-Tamm 1993 (see, in particular, Table 6.
The conjoined items in (3) are of three different grammatical categories, a noun, a participial phrase, and a clause.
Estonian -vat possibly derives from a participial construction used in subordinate clauses after the main verb of a speech act or mental state (Campbell 1991).

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