particular


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particular

1. (of the solution of a differential equation) obtained by giving specific values to the arbitrary constants in a general equation
2. Logic (of a proposition) affirming or denying something about only some members of a class of objects, as in some men are not wicked
3. Property law denoting an estate that precedes the passing of the property into ultimate ownership
4. Logic another name for individual
5. Philosophy an individual object, as contrasted with a universal

Particular

 

singular, individual, the philosophical cate-gory expressing the relative isolation, discreteness, and spatial and temporal distinctness of things and events and the specific individual properties constituting their unique qualitative and quantitative determinateness.

Not only individual objects but whole classes of objects as well can be regarded as particulars if they are considered as unified, relatively independent, and existing within the limits of a certain measure. In addition, the object itself is a set of individual parts. Things and events are absolutely nonidentical, individual. They occupy different places, have different relations, and consequently possess different properties. Events cannot be repeated. Phenomena are subject to the principle of the irreversibility of time. The “repeated” is already characterized by its occurrence at a different time and thus under new conditions, which leave their stamp on the phenomenon.

The concrete form that an individual object takes is determined by a system of relationships out of which the object emerges. “The individual exists only in the connection that leads to the universal…. Every individual enters incompletely into the universal, etc., etc.” (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29, p. 318). The universal is disclosed in its concept only through the reflection of the individual and particular. As early as Aristotle it was noted that the universal exists only in relation to the particular. Science is interested above all in the lawlike and the universal, which it reaches through the particular. Art and other spheres of human activity achieve the universal in the form of the particular.

A. G. SPIRKIN

References in classic literature ?
Should it unhappily be necessary to appeal to these delicate truths for a justification for dispensing with the consent of particular States to a dissolution of the federal pact, will not the complaining parties find it a difficult task to answer the MULTIPLIED and IMPORTANT infractions with which they may be confronted?
Because it has a particular quality which no other has?
And it has this particular quality because it has an object of a particular kind; and this is true of the other arts and sciences?
And a certain kind of thirst is relative to a certain kind of drink; but thirst taken alone is neither of much nor little, nor of good nor bad, nor of any particular kind of drink, but of drink only?
In the particular case where the place concerned is a human brain, the perspective belonging to the place consists of all the perceptions of a certain man at a given time.
That is to say, the table which is neutral as between different observers (actual and possible) is the set of all those particulars which would naturally be called "aspects" of the table from different points of view.
Like the different appearances of the table to a number of simultaneous observers, the different particulars that belong to one physical object are to be collected together by continuity and inherent laws of correlation, not by their supposed causal connection with an unknown assumed existent called a piece of matter, which would be a mere unnecessary metaphysical thing in itself.
He told me, that however he was disappointed in his expectations of a fortune, he was not disappointed in a wife, and that I was all to him that a wife could be, and he was more than satisfied on the whole when the particulars were put together, but that this offer was so kind, that it was more than he could express.
If I had discovered myself to my mother, it might be difficult to convince her of the particulars, and I had no way to prove them.
In the meantime, another quarrel with my husband happened, which came up to such a mad extreme as almost pushed me on to tell it him all to his face; but though I kept it in so as not to come to the particulars, I spoke so much as put him into the utmost confusion, and in the end brought out the whole story.
As Whisker was tired of standing, and Mr Swiveller was kind enough to stimulate him by shrill whistles, and various sporting cries, they rattled off at too sharp a pace to admit of much conversation: especially as the pony, incensed by Mr Swiveller's admonitions, took a particular fancy for the lamp-posts and cart-wheels, and evinced a strong desire to run on the pavement and rasp himself against the brick walls.
Finally, Kit informed the gentleman that the premises were now to let, and that a board upon the door referred all inquirers to Mr Sampson Brass, Solicitor, of Bevis Marks, from whom he might perhaps learn some further particulars.