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the orientation of any culture or human grouping in which the values and criteria used in evaluating actions are internal to the group, without any reference to values or criteria which apply to human beings universally. Thus, many traditional cultures are seen as particularistic, while modern societies have increasingly tended to be dominated by universalistic criteria, by universalism. see also PATTERN VARIABLES.



in bourgeois political science, the concept referring to a movement whose goal is the acquisition or retention of political, administrative, or cultural autonomy for a particular part of the state.

Extreme manifestations of particularism include separatism (a movement for secession and formation of an independent state) and decentralization, which rejects all forms of centralism. In the context of the Middle Ages, “particularism” refers to the political fragmentation characteristic of a certain period of development of the feudal state and associated with the striving of feudal seigniors and cities for maximum political, administrative, and judicial independence. Also typical of this period was particularism in law: heterogeneity and diversity of legal systems in the provinces, principalities, and cities of a single state.

In theology, the term “particularism” refers to the doctrine that not all believing Christians but only the elect will attain salvation (decretum particulare).

References in periodicals archive ?
As a result, presidents have strong incentives to engage in what we call electoral particularism, that is, to disproportionately target the benefits of federal policies to constituencies located within electorally competitive states.
As with the arguments for constructivism and against recognitionalism, the explanation of action-guidance is central to the argument for particularism.
This revealed how influential the theory has become and because my own reflections on the notion of just war were taking a different direction it seemed important to revisit the idea of particularism in order to make clear where, as I see it, Bartholomeusz goes astray in applying this line of thought to Buddhist justifications for war.
Thus, any Jewish ethnic particularism is undermined.
From the above dominant orientations in the quest for African self-identity, the general deducible impression is that there is a dichotomy and incompatibility between the perspectives of African scholars on cultural universalism and particularism as related to the quest for an identity.
It's about defending the common interest, not allowing the common interest to go down the drain because of excessive particularism," he said.
The interconnected nature of the new generation of Saudis was putting Saudi claims of cultural particularism to their biggest test yet, Ibrahim said.
Not long after the nascent theology of religions took the momentous step in the late 1980's of crossing the "theological Rubicon" (8) of setting aside the "myth" of Christian absoluteness (9) and began developing the philosophical and theological sensitivity needed to move decisively beyond the sad and morally disturbing legacy of Christian particularism, both exclusivistic and inclusivistic (as evidenced in a recent essay on the Goan Inquisition by Klaus Klostermaier), (10) the discipline quickly stalled in the impasse of inclusivist epicyclical theorizing about the salvific value of religions other than Christianity.
For example, the French values of low context (indirect) communication, flexible deadlines, high power distance, relatively high uncertainty avoidance, moderate femininity (placing value on the quality of life), ascription, affectivity and moderate particularism, are very different from the typical American values that support the use of participative management.
He focuses on several themes--worship rituals, the content of rabbinic sermons, synagogue architecture, particularism vs.
The end of the Cold War, increasing foreign investment, and the weakness of the domestic economy probably played mostly minor roles in the decline of particularism.
He was immersed in the particularism of ethnography without grand theorizing.