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the orientation of any culture or human grouping in which the values and criteria used in evaluating actions are internal to the group, without any reference to values or criteria which apply to human beings universally. Thus, many traditional cultures are seen as particularistic, while modern societies have increasingly tended to be dominated by universalistic criteria, by universalism. see also PATTERN VARIABLES.



in bourgeois political science, the concept referring to a movement whose goal is the acquisition or retention of political, administrative, or cultural autonomy for a particular part of the state.

Extreme manifestations of particularism include separatism (a movement for secession and formation of an independent state) and decentralization, which rejects all forms of centralism. In the context of the Middle Ages, “particularism” refers to the political fragmentation characteristic of a certain period of development of the feudal state and associated with the striving of feudal seigniors and cities for maximum political, administrative, and judicial independence. Also typical of this period was particularism in law: heterogeneity and diversity of legal systems in the provinces, principalities, and cities of a single state.

In theology, the term “particularism” refers to the doctrine that not all believing Christians but only the elect will attain salvation (decretum particulare).

References in periodicals archive ?
This point is mentioned again in the empirical sections of the volume, where Mungiu-Pippidi discusses how power discretion is common in societies dominated by particularism.
Will their relative influence, and thus the resulting size of electoral particularism in policy outcomes, vary across policy areas?
There are many different kinds of particularities, but "culture" is by definition the most quintessential particularism since culture is defined as the set of values or practices of parts smaller than the whole: "culture is what some persons feel or do, unlike others who do not feel or do the same things" (Wallerstein 91).
I unpack this point by arguing that the inclusive demand differentiates an "anything goes" pluralism and particularism from a nontoxic "everything included" universalism whose ground cannot be covered by the former notions.
In Rethinking Jewish Philosophy: Beyond Particularism and Universalism, Aaron Hughes offers a comprehensive, historically nuanced examination of "Jewish philosophy" that challenges pervasive, long-held assumptions regarding the nature of the field.
As with the arguments for constructivism and against recognitionalism, the explanation of action-guidance is central to the argument for particularism.
Topics include the nature of legal authority; the regulation of speech; the legal theories underlying bans of polygamy; Ronald Dworkin's and Nigel Simmonds's challenges to legal positivism; Joseph Raz's treatments of theories of law, separability and necessity, and laws normativity; universalism and particularism as different approaches to understanding legal reasons; natural law and the relationship between crimes and wrongs; a non-instrumental value of rights derived from their constitutive role in a universal form of community; a novel theory for the justification of group rights; justification of imprisonment in the theory of punishment; and the communicative theory of punishment of Antony Duff.
It is quite obvious that by empowering the downtrodden, conservative and pious parochial people to release the nation from the yoke of the authoritarian secular tutelage that had dwarfed democracy and the economy and shrunk people's vision to local particularism was not enough.
This suggestion was first proposed some time ago by Charles Hallisey in an influential article in the Journal of Buddhist Ethics ("Ethical Particularism in Theravada Buddhism").
Thus, any Jewish ethnic particularism is undermined.
From the above dominant orientations in the quest for African self-identity, the general deducible impression is that there is a dichotomy and incompatibility between the perspectives of African scholars on cultural universalism and particularism as related to the quest for an identity.
It's about defending the common interest, not allowing the common interest to go down the drain because of excessive particularism," he said.