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the orientation of any culture or human grouping in which the values and criteria used in evaluating actions are internal to the group, without any reference to values or criteria which apply to human beings universally. Thus, many traditional cultures are seen as particularistic, while modern societies have increasingly tended to be dominated by universalistic criteria, by universalism. see also PATTERN VARIABLES.



in bourgeois political science, the concept referring to a movement whose goal is the acquisition or retention of political, administrative, or cultural autonomy for a particular part of the state.

Extreme manifestations of particularism include separatism (a movement for secession and formation of an independent state) and decentralization, which rejects all forms of centralism. In the context of the Middle Ages, “particularism” refers to the political fragmentation characteristic of a certain period of development of the feudal state and associated with the striving of feudal seigniors and cities for maximum political, administrative, and judicial independence. Also typical of this period was particularism in law: heterogeneity and diversity of legal systems in the provinces, principalities, and cities of a single state.

In theology, the term “particularism” refers to the doctrine that not all believing Christians but only the elect will attain salvation (decretum particulare).

References in periodicals archive ?
Hence European imperialism opened the epistemological possibility of universalist politics of world literature, but on the other hand by limiting it to the European continent it brought back it into the particularist one: it functions as the ontological condition of the possibility for the immanent relationship itself between the universal and the particular.
Particularist views begin with the assumption that what Beethoven created when he created his Sonata No.
These different approaches to policy and service provision--from predistributive and universal efforts, to targeting and particularist approaches--can coalesce to form a protective framework that prevents inequalities widening.
Of course, particularism itself is a theory, and perhaps inside every particularist there is a disappointed theorist who simply gave up the search for the "god particle" too soon.
For this strategy to work, it was necessary to nurture a national consciousness--this is the era in which the United States went from a plural to a singular noun--by stigmatizing localism and all particularist identity markers of class, ethnicity, and religion through an "Americanization movement.
I additionally look for things that transcend any particularist, sectarian affiliation.
Here religious scholars and church leaders--some universalists and some agnostics on the issue--explore expressions of the idea from the particularist universalism of third-century origin to the annihilation of hell and the perfection of freedom in the theology of contemporary JA1/4rgen Moltmann.
The old idea of natural rights postulated the particularist individual; we know now that no such person exists.
But to invoke Berlin again, perhaps a better way to move toward this goal is to insist less on the superiority of our version of the absolute value and, rather, to emphasize more the things we will lose if we remain wedded to our particularist convictions.
In a balanced way, he assesses the strengths and weaknesses of both these emerging pluralist and particularist options.
As a nationalist movement engaged in a national conflict with the Jews, Hamas sought to reconcile the universal message of Islam with the particularist foundation of nationalism by "Is-lamizing" Palestinian nationalism and by "nationalizing" Islam.
Some right-leaning or particularist Jews charge that the community is not investing enough in education, is not looking out enough for its own self-interest and is hellbent on assimilation.