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the orientation of any culture or human grouping in which the values and criteria used in evaluating actions are internal to the group, without any reference to values or criteria which apply to human beings universally. Thus, many traditional cultures are seen as particularistic, while modern societies have increasingly tended to be dominated by universalistic criteria, by universalism. see also PATTERN VARIABLES.



in bourgeois political science, the concept referring to a movement whose goal is the acquisition or retention of political, administrative, or cultural autonomy for a particular part of the state.

Extreme manifestations of particularism include separatism (a movement for secession and formation of an independent state) and decentralization, which rejects all forms of centralism. In the context of the Middle Ages, “particularism” refers to the political fragmentation characteristic of a certain period of development of the feudal state and associated with the striving of feudal seigniors and cities for maximum political, administrative, and judicial independence. Also typical of this period was particularism in law: heterogeneity and diversity of legal systems in the provinces, principalities, and cities of a single state.

In theology, the term “particularism” refers to the doctrine that not all believing Christians but only the elect will attain salvation (decretum particulare).

References in periodicals archive ?
Constant and Tracy, for example, were laissez faire individualists whose commitments would today be called libertarian; yet despite the vast range of their political agreement, Constant leans pluralist, defending local and particularist loyalties as a bulwark against state power, while Tracy leans rationalist, arguing that if the central government represents the entire population, then any intermediate group acting to check its power must represent an illegitimate special interest.
From the perspective of the center, it is modern philosophy which negates all other philosophies (from the South), and which categorizes them as being equivalent to mythological, folkloric, conventional, backward, particularist, and/or pseudo-philosophical thinking.
Of course, particularism itself is a theory, and perhaps inside every particularist there is a disappointed theorist who simply gave up the search for the "god particle" too soon.
Graham Smith, Vivien Law, and Andrew Bohr, all associated with the Post-Soviet States Research Programme, explain that the debate that followed illustrated a common tension between universalist and particularist notions of distributive justice in postcolonial countries.
For this strategy to work, it was necessary to nurture a national consciousness--this is the era in which the United States went from a plural to a singular noun--by stigmatizing localism and all particularist identity markers of class, ethnicity, and religion through an "Americanization movement.
I additionally look for things that transcend any particularist, sectarian affiliation.
Here religious scholars and church leaders--some universalists and some agnostics on the issue--explore expressions of the idea from the particularist universalism of third-century origin to the annihilation of hell and the perfection of freedom in the theology of contemporary JA1/4rgen Moltmann.
In this study I draw on Sibel Erol's article "Discourses on the Intellectual: The Universal, the Particular and Their Mediation in the Works of Nazli Eray" where Erol uses Eray's works to show the turn from universalist intellectualism to particularist intellectualism.
Seemingly frustrated with the particularist outcomes of identity politics, philosopher Alain Badiou has lately developed and defended such an idea of Paul.
In a balanced way, he assesses the strengths and weaknesses of both these emerging pluralist and particularist options.
Some right-leaning or particularist Jews charge that the community is not investing enough in education, is not looking out enough for its own self-interest and is hellbent on assimilation.
Particularist identification hardens for people not because the universal is inhospitable in principle, but because people have had to depend on such enclaves and networks more and more in order to make for themselves an inhabitable "concrete universal," as common projects serving historically determinate needs are devalued, privatized and commodified outright.