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the orientation of any culture or human grouping in which the values and criteria used in evaluating actions are internal to the group, without any reference to values or criteria which apply to human beings universally. Thus, many traditional cultures are seen as particularistic, while modern societies have increasingly tended to be dominated by universalistic criteria, by universalism. see also PATTERN VARIABLES.



in bourgeois political science, the concept referring to a movement whose goal is the acquisition or retention of political, administrative, or cultural autonomy for a particular part of the state.

Extreme manifestations of particularism include separatism (a movement for secession and formation of an independent state) and decentralization, which rejects all forms of centralism. In the context of the Middle Ages, “particularism” refers to the political fragmentation characteristic of a certain period of development of the feudal state and associated with the striving of feudal seigniors and cities for maximum political, administrative, and judicial independence. Also typical of this period was particularism in law: heterogeneity and diversity of legal systems in the provinces, principalities, and cities of a single state.

In theology, the term “particularism” refers to the doctrine that not all believing Christians but only the elect will attain salvation (decretum particulare).

References in periodicals archive ?
The extent to which presidents are universalistic or particularistic is of more than theoretical and academic importance, and it is a central focus of The Particularistic President.
If lobbyists were able to put fewer particularistic policies in place, it would be harder for them to demonstrate to their corporate bosses the bottom-line benefits of lobbying.
The competing perspectives on patronage politics result mainly from a lack of empirical tests regarding whether the poor prefer particularistic goods to programmatic goods, under the key condition in which both types of goods are available.
It is also apparent that of the multi-layered meanings and modes of relating to the Holocaust which mark Holocaust education in Israel since the beginning of the millennium (Gross, 2010), OWCs prioritize the emotional, particularistic and Jewish aspects and represent them through the story of the individual who either perished or survived the Holocaust.
We may think of the quantitative standard of probable cause as a legalistic constraint on discretion and the qualitative standard of general reasonableness as a particularistic constraint.
The Democrats have been very focused on what we call the particularistic concerns of women, such as abortion, equal pay and contraception," said Lara Brown, a political scientist at Villanova University.
Implicitly, they suggest that family firms tend to make particularistic decisions regarding internationalization and may lack the resources needed to pursue such opportunities.
And other non-Christian religions were never so dependent on forced, particularistic historical readings in the first place.
They could be as particularistic as Catholic communities.
What's not quite so positive, again in my fallible opinion, is what I perceive as something approaching embarrassment that we hang on to a festival so particularistic as Reformation Day.
The Twelve Articles were written by the Calvinistic missionaries, but in some critical points their predestinarian or particularistic messages are changed into an Arminian, universalist one.
invariant relationships presumed to hold regardless of the population or specific methodology) to particularistic (i.