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the orientation of any culture or human grouping in which the values and criteria used in evaluating actions are internal to the group, without any reference to values or criteria which apply to human beings universally. Thus, many traditional cultures are seen as particularistic, while modern societies have increasingly tended to be dominated by universalistic criteria, by universalism. see also PATTERN VARIABLES.



in bourgeois political science, the concept referring to a movement whose goal is the acquisition or retention of political, administrative, or cultural autonomy for a particular part of the state.

Extreme manifestations of particularism include separatism (a movement for secession and formation of an independent state) and decentralization, which rejects all forms of centralism. In the context of the Middle Ages, “particularism” refers to the political fragmentation characteristic of a certain period of development of the feudal state and associated with the striving of feudal seigniors and cities for maximum political, administrative, and judicial independence. Also typical of this period was particularism in law: heterogeneity and diversity of legal systems in the provinces, principalities, and cities of a single state.

In theology, the term “particularism” refers to the doctrine that not all believing Christians but only the elect will attain salvation (decretum particulare).

References in periodicals archive ?
Particularist views begin with the assumption that what Beethoven created when he created his Sonata No.
Their success will be judged, among other things, by how well they can explain the anomalies and conflicts detected by particularists.
This is a fourth implication, and this point has been made by particularists like Heim, who charges that pluralists assume the same superiority with regard to other positions that they disapprove in theology:
Holbrook is a particularist because he sometimes deviates from justified legal rules in gap cases, based on the particular circumstances.
Comparative constitutional law founded upon the existence of such relationships can even be justified from a non-extreme particularist standpoint, as the historical relationship between the two constitutions provides a reason to expect that genuine comparison might be possible.
As a result, rules may retain their value despite scattered instances of rule-sensitive particularism, and, accordingly, rule-sensitive particularists will often have reason to follow rules.
Irwin--who shows that particularists have no convincing textual evidence for regarding Aristotle as their ally--is explicit about the matter (103).
In the writings of the particularists mentioned above, the vector of the revelatory motion is invasive and represents an unwanted encroachment on and breaching of ground viewed as sacred by the percipient figure of the hero, who embodies qualities imputed to the Russian Orthodox faithful.
But some postmodern feminists, or what I am calling particularists, sometimes defend the use of veiling as an authentic expression of a particular culture and the "lived experience" of Muslim women, denouncing critics of the veil as Eurocentric and imperialist.
This particularist definition of Jewish philosophy appears problematic if we at all take seriously Ken Seeskin's argument, in Jewish Philosophy in a Secular Age,(10) that "[t]here is no such thing as a philosophic truth accessible to a single religious community.
The Fleming lectures have, of course, varied widely (even wildly) in style and substance," says Professor Noggle, who has heard many of the speakers: "lectures by generalists and particularists, storytellers and cliometricians, challenging revisionists of conventional wisdom and tiresome echoers of songs sung before" (p.
So I still think something is missing in Perez Otero's interpretation, and that these points manifest again the fact that some things remain unclear in our understanding of what truly distinguishes linguistic and modal particularists from the theorists they oppose.