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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a work with satirical distortions and malicious attacks intended to insult and compromise an individual, group, party, or social movement. The term is derived from the name of the Roman shoemaker Pasquino (15th century), an author of biting epigrams directed against people in high positions.

The pasquinade is most often used to discredit political opponents. For example, W. Menzel’s German Literature contained attacks on Schiller, Goethe, and modern French literature. M. A. Korf’s The Accession of Nicholas I to the Throne (1848), which blackened the reputation of the Decembrists, was compiled on the direct orders of Nicholas I. To repudiate Korf’s book, A. I. Herzen and N. P. Ogarev published a collection based on documentary evidence, December 14, 1825, and Emperor Nicholas. N. M. Iazykov and D. V. Davydov wrote pasquinades in verse to ridicule P. Ia. Chaadaev for his Philosophical Letter. Many writers, especially those connected with the liberation movement, were obliged to defend themselves from pasquinades. In Russian literature, the “antinihilist novel” acquired certain features of the pasquinade (for example, V. P. Kliushnikov’s The Mirage and A. F. Pisemskii’s Troubled Seas). Unlike the pamphlet, which it resembles in its denunciatory style, the pasquinade is not an officially recognized literary genre.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Though something is of course lost in translation, the pasquinade expresses the concern of many Italians today that Berlusconi ('Il Cavaliere') not only controls the country as Prime Minister, but owns much of the Italian media too.
The anti-papal tone of the renaissance and baroque pasquinade is here subverted by a satirical image targeting a supposedly 'secular' form of authority (the American presidency), which has, through its use of crusading language, appropriated the moral authority of the catholic church, while ignoring the Pope's own opposition to war in Iraq.
Thus the sede vacante was open season for pasquinades, the expression of pent-up rage, disappointment, and disdain toward the dead pope and his possible successors, at least anonymously.
Over seven hundred pasquinades remain from the decades between 1500 and 1565, and only a dozen from the final decades of the century, when the statue was placed under surveillance (Romei, "Poesia" 2).
Pasquinades that list cardinals and their sins, like "Non ti maravigliar, Roma, se tanto," again from 1521, become typical of the genre in the sixteenth century:
Thus may a way be found to elect a good pastor outside of conclaves to redeem the keys of Saint Peter, and may he, these depraved men who esteem so little God's Church, toss up to the sky with fire.) Romei points to the quantity and quality of writers, especially from Tuscany, attracted to Rome by the court of Leo X as a reason for the rich trove of pasquinades following the pope's death ("Aretino" 27).
In fact, Romei argues, most authors of anonymous pasquinades were easily identified, because they were known to be writing in the service of one or another prominent prelate.
(19) It may have been Aretino's pasquinades directed at the cardinals of the Curia; or his vocal support for the French king even after his defeat at Pavia, when the pope readily made peace with the victor, the emperor Charles V; or the episode of his sixteen "sonetti lussoriosi" published in the final months of 1524 to accompany a set of sexually explicit engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi known as I modi.
Valerio's comment calls to mind Franco's self defense: that his pasquinades had never directly attacked papal rule.
"The Power of the Word: Pasquinades and Other Voices of Dissent." The Pamphilj and the Arts: Patronage and Consumption in Baroque Rome.
The translations are mine, with the exception of two pasquinades, translated by Jon Tveit (see note below), and the 1525 Cortigiana, translated by Campbell and Sbrocchi.
There is another tradition of pasquinades that were essentially associated with scholastic exercises of praise--described by Romei as "rituali, encomiastiche" and "pedantesche"--celebrated on April 25 (feast of Saint Mark the Evangelist), and published intermittently ("Poesia" 2).