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fashion,

in dress, the prevailing mode affecting modifications in costume. Styles in Asia have been characterized by freedom from change, and ancient Greek and Roman dress preserved the same flowing lines for centuries. Fashion in dress and interior decoration may be said to have originated in Europe about the 14th cent. New styles were set by monarchs and prominent personages and were spread by travelers, by descriptions in letters, and, in costumecostume,
distinctive forms of clothing, including official or ceremonial attire such as ecclesiastical vestments, coronation robes, academic gowns, armor, and theatrical dress.
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, by the exchange of the fashion dolldoll,
small figure of a human being, usually used as a child's toy. The many types of dolls found among the relics of primitive peoples were cult objects. Egypt, Greece, and Rome have left well-preserved dolls of wood, clay, bone, ivory, and bronze that were used symbolically
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. The first fashion magazine is thought to have originated c.1586 in Frankfurt, Germany; it was widely imitated, gradually superseding fashion dolls. Godey's Lady's Book, established in the United States in 1830, remained popular for decades. In interior decoration the influence of designers, such as Chippendale, Sheraton, and Robert and James Adam, was apparent in the 18th cent., but in costume the only influential designer at that period was Rose Bertin, milliner and dressmaker to Marie Antoinette.

In Paris—the leading arbiter of fashion since the Renaissance—the fading influence of celebrities was coincident with the rise of designer-dressmakers in the mid-19th cent. Paris haute couture has remained preeminent in setting fashions for women's dress. Designers such as Charles Frederick Worth, Coco Chanel, Lucien Lelong, Elsa Schiaparelli, Cristóbal Balenciaga, Christian Dior, and Yves Saint Laurent have had fashion houses in Paris. In the latter part of the 20th cent. such American designers as Norman Norell, Mainbocher, James Galanos, Bill Blass, and Pauline Trigère competed successfully with Parisian designers. London, in the early 19th cent., became the center for men's fashions under the leadership of Regency dandies such as Beau BrummellBrummell, Beau
(George Bryan Brummell) , 1778–1840, English dandy and wit. Brummell was greatly admired for his fastidious appearance and confident manner. He was an intimate of the prince regent (later George IV), and as such influenced men of society to wear dark, simply
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. In the mid-1960s, London was again for a time the center of fashion influence.

The 1970s and 80s saw the beginning of more divergent trends in fashion. This was the result of the increasing popularity of ready-to-wear collections by major designers, which made fashionable label-conscious dressing possible for the middle class. Ethnic-inspired looks and the punk style enjoyed a period of popularity. Successful clothing designers such as Ralph Lauren, Georgio Armani, Gianni Versace, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Rei Kawakubo, and Geoffrey Beene widened their design horizons, licensed their names, and put their distinctive marks on objects ranging from furniture to cars, fabric, and perfumes. The look of luxuriance that emerged in the 1980s was countered in the 1990s with the production of classic understated clothes. Fashions are adapted for mass production by the garment industries of New York, Los Angeles, and other cities.

Bibliography

See F. C. C. Boucher, 20,000 Years of Fashion (tr. 1967); R. Lynam, An Illustrated History of the Great Paris Designers and Their Creations (1972); J. A. Black and M. Garland, A History of Fashion (1980); M. and A. Batterberry, Fashion: The Mirror of History, (1982); J. Laver, Costume and Fashion: A Concise History (1982); M. Tranquillo, Styles of Fashion (1984); A. Hollander, Sex and Suits (1994); Editors of Phaidon Press, The Fashion Book (1998); T. Agins, The End of Fashion: The Mass Marketing of the Clothing Business (1999); B. Cosgrave, ed., Sample: Cuttings from Contemporary Fashion (2005); V. Steele, ed., Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion (2005); C. Wilcox, ed., The Golden Age of Couture: Paris and London 1947–57 (2007).

fashion

modes of behaviour or dress ‘in which the key feature is rapid and continual changing of styles’ (E. Wilson, Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity 1985). However, although centred on dress, fashion can be a feature of any area of life. Fashion is associated with three aspects of‘modernity’:
  1. culture of consumerism and perpetual change created by ADVERTISING, and fuelled by the MASS MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION;
  2. conformity and differentiation – as Simmel (1905) suggests, fashion supports the differentiation of self but at the same time lightens the load of responsibility for actions as this is shared with others;
  3. the more accessible affordability of ‘fashion goods’ and 'S tyle’ as an option in choice of clothes, furniture, or similar goods which enables people to exercise an element of control over their immediate social environment and presentation of self and social identity (cf. LIFESTYLE).

D. Hebdige (Subculture: The Meaning of Style, 1979) argues that different subcultures make their own style through the creative juxtaposition – or BRICOLAGE – of different clothes or objects. Thus fashion is subject to the same assessment as other forms of popular culture. It contains elements of both creative expression and manipulation.

Fashion

Brummel, George B. (Beau Brummel) (1778–1840)
set styles for men’s clothes and manners for a quarter century. [Western Fashion: NCE, 926]
Harper’s Bazaar
leading fashion magazine. [Am. Culture: Misc.]
Royal Ascot
annual horserace, occasion for great fashionable turnout. [Br. Cult.: Brewer Dictionary, 49]
Vogue
leading fashion magazine in France and America. [Fr. and Amer. Culture: Misc.]
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