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(1) In the USSR, a document that confirms the identity of Soviet citizens over the age of 16 in areas where the passport system has been instituted.
The standard internal passport usually has the text in two languages: Russian and the language of the Union or autonomous republic in which the passport is issued. The passport gives the bearer’s surname, first name, and patronymic; the year, month, day, and place of birth; and nationality. It is issued by the militia (police) of the applicant’s place of residence. There is no time limit on the validity of a passport; when a citizen reaches the ages of 25 and 45 new photographs taken at these ages are affixed. Passports without such photographs are invalid. The militia organs make passport entries concerning residence permits. Registry offices of civil status (ZAGS) make entries in passports concerning the registration of marriages, childbirths, and divorces, and military commissariats make entries concerning draft status.
The passport must be turned in when one is called for active military duty, upon a change of citizenship, on the occasion of a trip abroad, and in other such cases. Passports were first introduced by the Dec. 27, 1932, decree of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars (Collected Laws of the USSR, 1932, no. 84, arts. 516 and 517). The decree was intended as a measure to improve records on the population of cities, workers’ settlements, and new construction sites. The present Statute on the Passport System in the USSR was ratified by an Aug. 28, 1974, decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Collected Decrees of the USSR, 1974, no. 19, art. 109).
The passport must be registered at the place of permanent residence. Persons under 16 register their place of permanent residence with the militia without passports if they do not reside with parents or guardians and if they can produce a birth certificate or other document that confirms their date and place of birth. Military personnel use identification papers issued by their units instead of passports. Permanent residents of rural areas who do not have passports can also register without them. Residence permits are mandatory for all persons except military personnel quartered in barracks and camps and on ships and military personnel on active service who are on short-term leave and have the appropriate pass. Enforcement of the passport statute is handled by the militia. Those who commit passport violations are held accountable under administrative law. In some cases, for example, for malicious violation of passport rules, criminal proceedings may be instituted under criminal Articles 196–198 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR.
(2) Foreign travel passports are issued to citizens of the USSR who will be going abroad. They are subdivided into diplomatic, service, and ordinary. The holders of diplomatic passports (heads of state, heads and members of governments, diplomatic employees) enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunity abroad. Service passports are usually issued to employees of Soviet trade representations; to the technical, service, and auxiliary personnel of diplomatic and consular missions; and to members of these employees’ families who are citizens of the country to which the particular representation or mission is accredited. To be valid for entry into another country the foreign travel passport must have an entry visa, unless another rule of entry has been established by agreement of the respective states. (On the use of identification papers in the bourgeois countries, seeLEGITIMATION.) [19–774–4; updated]
What does it mean when you dream about a passport?
Dreaming about a passport can be a dream about travel. Alternatively, a passport can represent our identity. Metaphorically, a passport is anything that allows us entry. It used to be said, for example, that a college education was a passport to a good job.