4D flow MRI assessment of right atrial flow patterns in the normal heart - influence of caval vein arrangement and implications for the patent foramen ovale
. PLoS One 2017;12:e0173046.
Clinical and imaging characteristic of stroke patients with patent foramen ovale
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Edwards, "Incidence and size of patent foramen ovale
during the first 10 decades of life: an autopsy study of 965 normal hearts," Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol.
Lamy et al., "Recurrent cerebrovascular events associated with patent foramen ovale
, atrial septal aneurysm, or both," New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Cochleovestibular TIA as a Manifestation of Patent Foramen Ovale
. J Int Adv Otol 2017; 13: 422-5.
Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutation may predispose to paradoxical embolismin subjects with patent foramen ovale
. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2003; 14:261-268.
If noninvasive ventilatory support is utilized, providers should consider using minimal pressure settings (i.e., only enough to overcome device resistance) to reduce intrathoracic pressure which might increase leftto-right shunt and subsequently predispose to paradoxical embolism in patients with a patent foramen ovale
. Furthermore, whether ventilation occurs via invasive or noninvasive means, reexpansion barotrauma may be a contributory factor in decompression illness, and thus practitioners should minimize peak pressures to any extent possible.
Hase, "A suspected case of paradoxical renal embolism through the patent foramen ovale
," Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, vol.
Vascular complications are rare in this syndrome, generally involving the reopening of a patent foramen ovale
or pulmonary artery compression .
Subsequent echocardiography done did not reveal any structural abnormality, suggesting closure of the patent foramen ovale
and the patent ductus arteriosus.
Congenital cardiac shunts were defined as heart defects at birth, including patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale
, ventricular septal defects, and atrial septal defects.
A patent foramen ovale
(PFO) is a remnant of normal fetal circulation that remains open after birth and is present in approximately 25% of adults .